The economic condition of the oil and gas industry is tighter than ever. Optimizing well productivity to maintain cost effectiveness is on every operator’s mind. Enhancing well productivity requires more-detailed analysis, more measurements, and even-more-advanced products and technologies, which all cost more money. Doing more and reducing cost can be a dilemma. This is the time when properly choosing sound technologies is critical to improve efficiency and increase success rates. Several well-stimulation products and techniques have been seen to benefit well productivity from recent field trials and implementations in carbonate reservoirs, including simpler acid fluid systems, integrated work flows, and coiled-tubing bottomhole assemblies.
Emulsified acid has been a preferred carbonate-stimulation fluid for 30 years. Clearly, mass transfer can be retarded significantly by the emulsion form for deeper live-acid penetration in matrix- and fracture-acidizing applications. The quality of the emulsified acid is sensitive to how it is mixed. In the laboratory, slowly adding acid into oil, mostly diesel, containing surfactant while blending is required to achieve good emulsion stability. Field practice is another story. The large amount of emulsified acid is normally batch-mixed in the service company yard or at the wellsite by circulation pumps and tanks. The mixing energy used in the laboratory is difficult to match in the field. Consequently, the consistency of the final emulsified acid pumped can vary from well to well. Recently, single-phased-acid systems have been developed to simplify the fluid preparation and to make the product performance more robust. Various single-phased acids are provided by service companies or even operators themselves using different formulations to achieve the effect of retardation.
Another important technology for successful acidizing, especially in horizontal wells or highly heterogeneous reservoirs, is diversion. Many diverters have been used. Evaluation of diversion during the treatment remains rudimentary. Pressure humps are used to infer diversion without good confirmation of how effective the diversion actually is. More-accurate information about fluid rheological and friction characteristics is needed to evaluate the downhole-pressure behavior and, hence, quantified diversion results. The term “diversion” is often used interchangeably with “placement.” Proper placement can be achieved by means other than diverting materials. Jetting is believed to place acid effectively in matrix stimulation without chemical diverters.
Each technology costs additional money at the early stage. When they are routinely used, fully integrated in work flows, and eventually linked with automation, true cost effectiveness of the stimulation treatments can be realized. The investment made today, therefore, will bear fruits in the future.
This Month's Technical Papers
Recommended Additional Reading
IPTC 20282 Low-Viscosity Acid Platform: Benchmark Study Reveals Superior Reaction Kinetics at Reservoir Conditions by Mohammed Sayed, Saudi Aramco, et al.
IPTC 19324 A New Multiple Chelating Acid System With Low Damage and Weak Dissolution by Nianyin Li, Southwest Petroleum University, et al.
SPE 199253 Digitalization of Matrix-Stimulation Work Flow—Efficient Candidate Screening in the Blink of an Eye by Suzanna Juyanty Mohd Jeffry, Petronas, et al.
|Frank Chang, SPE, is a petroleum engineering consultant in production technology with Saudi Aramco, which he joined in 2012. He manages a portfolio of projects focused on developing new technologies in hydraulic fracturing, carbonate stimulation, formation-damage removal, corrosion and scale mitigation, and sand control. Chang started his career with Stimlab in 1992 after earning a PhD degree in petroleum engineering from the University of Oklahoma. He joined Schlumberger in 1996. Chang progressed from development engineer to engineering adviser during his 16-year tenure at Schlumberger, where he was involved in development of several new products and technologies in sand control, fracturing, acidizing, and perforating. Chang is an author of the SPE acidizing monograph published in 2016. He holds 28 patents, is an author of more than 50 technical papers, and was named an SPE “A Peer Apart” honoree in 2015. Chang serves as executive editor of the SPE Production & Operations journal and is a member of the JPT Editorial Committee. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.|
Frank Chang, SPE, Petroleum Engineering Consultant, Saudi Aramco
01 June 2020
Compositional Simulation, Artificial Intelligence Optimize Water Injection
The complete paper discusses optimization of a development plan involving low-salinity water injection.
Recovering More Than 70% From the Johan Sverdrup Field
Before the giant Johan Sverdrup field had produced even one barrel of oil, operator Equinor and its license partners set a recovery ambition of greater than 70% for the field.
Water, Water Everywhere: Using ML and Game Theory To Win at Produced-Water Forecasting
Advanced machine-learning methods combined with aspects of game theory are helping operators understand the drivers of water production and improve forecasting and economics in unconventional basins.
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