Addition of Surfactant-Modified Graphene Improves Water-Based Drilling Mud
This paper reports the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate modified graphene (SDS-Gr) on the rheological features, fluid loss, and swelling inhibition mechanism of clay.
New Method Determines Well Spacing in Unconventional Reservoirs
Present industry solutions to the challenge of well spacing involve expensive geomechanical Earth modeling or fracture-geometry monitoring that is time-consuming, data-intensive, and geography-specific.
Technologies and Practices Push ERD Safe Operating Envelope, Reap Savings Offshore
The complete paper describes an offshore artificial island project northwest of Abu Dhabi in which drilling limits were extended continually by adopting new technologies and practices in an extended-reach-drilling (ERD) campaign.
Study Models Onset of Liquid Loading in Large-Diameter Deviated Gas Wells
The complete paper describes an experimental study performed to investigate the onset of liquid loading in a 6-in. production casing at various inclination angles.
Installation of Gas Ejector Provides Boost to Low-Pressure Gas Well
To further reduce backpressure on low-pressure gas wells and increase reserves in a mature gas field, a gas-ejector project was evaluated and proposed.
Modeling Liquid Holdup in Pseudoslugs
The complete paper develops a plausible physical model of the experimentally observed pseudoslug liquid-holdup phenomenon and models physical and hydrodynamic behavior using a dimensional regression modeling approach.
Large-Scale Experiments Examine Slug-Length Evolution in Long Pipes
The complete paper presents a set of two- and three-phase slug-flow experiments conducted in a 766-m-long, 8-in. pipe at 45-bara pressure.
Neural Networks Help Classify Reservoirs by Recognizing Cuttings Lithologies
Advances during the past decade in using convolutional neural networks for visual recognition of discriminately different objects means that now object recognition can be achieved to a significant extent.
Drilling and Completion Fluids
There is a growing interest in using nanocomposites to improve drilling-fluid rheology. In recent years, an additive derived from a sequence of graphene-based materials has been reported. The progress of these graphene derivatives has been used as a paradigm for water-based drilling fluids.
The recurring long-term mitigation of slugging and various flow-assurance phenomena are challenging issues that demand attention and considerable technical effort. The three papers outlined here discuss slightly different issues and approaches to slug-flow phenomena and flow assurance.
Engineers thrive on making more from less, and this month’s paper selections highlight efforts to improve the efficiency of gas-production operations throughout the world.
Horizontal and Extended-Reach Wells
Our understanding of drilling with better software, instrumentation, machines, computer vision, downhole tools, and robots will continue improving the economics of horizontal wells, and the trend is set to continue. This is good news for the geothermal market.
New Low-Impact Drilling Fluid for Deepwater Applications
This paper describes a low-impact, nonaqueous drilling fluid (LIDF) designed to minimize equivalent circulating density (ECD) increases and associated risks in deep water by reducing the effect of cold temperature on fluid viscosity.
Comprehensive Cuttings-Transport Model Optimizes Drilling Operations for Hole Cleaning
This paper discusses a new, comprehensive cuttings-transport model designed to enable safe and improved hole-cleaning operations.
New Multiphase Pump System Can Handle Up to 100% Gas Volume Fraction
To have the flexibility to treat both rich and lean gas wells [up to 100% gas volume fraction (GVF)], a new multiphase pump system has been developed by comparing the different boosting systems performance and analyzing well-by-well production scenarios.
Machine-Learning-Assisted Approach Analyzes Slug-Flow Root Cause
The complete paper discusses the successful application of a data-driven approach to analyze production data and identify root causes of slugging in a subsea production system on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.
Report Outlines Knowledge Gained in Gas Hydrate Production Testing
The complete paper reviews the results of gas hydrate engineering and production testing studies associated with northern Canada and Alaska.
Machine-Learning Image Recognition Enhances Rock Classification
Automated image-processing algorithms can improve the quality and speed in classifying the morphology of heterogeneous carbonate rock. Several commercial products have produced petrophysical properties from 2D images and, to a lesser extent, from 3D images.
Artificial Intelligence in Operation Monitoring Discovers Patterns Within Drilling Reports
The complete paper provides an approach using machine-learning and sequence-mining algorithms for predicting and classifying the next operation based on textual descriptions.
Imagine the time when we are no longer concerned about the digital-transformation issues we face today, such as data availability, security, and many others. This would be the time when companies make the best out of digital infrastructure. This era might be here sooner than expected.
Multilevel Completions in One Trip: Development and Deployment
The complete paper describes the hurdles that have prevented single-trip installation of upper and lower completions in the complex world of subsea and deepwater applications and examines the processes, technologies, and risk-mitigation steps that took a concept from pilot to successful deployment.
Seal Qualification and Single-Trip Lockdown Sleeve Reduce Risk
Traditionally, a wellhead system requires a drilling lockdown sleeve (LDS) during drilling operations to ensure that the seal assembly is rigid and prevents dynamic movement. By eliminating the LDS, however, the operator will save multiple trips into the well.
From Completion to Production Without Intervention in a Subsea Well
The complete paper describes the development and implementation of a glass-plug solution that closed the technical gaps that had previously inhibited fully intervention-free operation for completion installation.
Study Quantifies Stress Sensitivity of Fractured Tight Reservoirs
The complete paper describes and quantifies the stress-dependence of compaction and permeability for anisotropic rock matrices, natural fractures, and hydraulic fractures, based on comprehensive rock tests of a fractured tight reservoir.
Surfactant-Based Treatment Fluids Mitigate Fracture Hits in Parent Wells
The complete paper presents a strategy for selecting a surfactant/solvent package for parent wells. Oil recovery and associated water saturation in the microfluidic-based device, with or without surfactant, are quantified and reveal that the oil recovery is enhanced with surfactant.
Machine-Learning Approach Determines Spatial Variation in Shale Decline Curves
The complete paper describes an automated machine-learning approach to determine the spatial variation in decline type curves for shale gas production, based on existing data of production, completion, and geological parameters.
Transient Multiphase-Flow Simulation Enables Slugging Mitigation Solution
The complete paper discuses a well with a history of sand production that exhibits long cyclic slugging behavior.
Analysis of Sand-Control-Installation Failures Provides Insights, Paths Forward
Sand-control-installation failures range from minor issues that can be remedied easily to catastrophic events that put the entire well and investment at risk.
Offshore Drilling and Completion
Specifically targeting ingrained thinking, the selected papers demonstrate the game-changing results that can be achieved even when targeting long-established norms. They demonstrate everything that our industry should be proud of and what we strive for.
With reduced new unconventional well activity, practices such as frac-hit mitigation—pressurization of parent wells during child-well fracture stimulation—have become increasingly important to reduce parent-well proppant cleanouts as well as to maximize production from both parent and child wells.
Sand control has evolved over the years; however, the fundamentals of screen sizing have not changed. Particle-size distribution remains the basis for most designs. Laser diffraction has provided better definition of fines, and greater focus is placed now on particle-shape characterization.
Wireline Sand-Detection Tool Locates, Quantifies Downhole Sand Production
Field examples presented in the complete paper describe principles of data acquisition with a sand-detection tool when run in combination with a production logging string and results of logging in slightly deviated wells completed with sand screens.
Company Integrates Offshore Windfarm Into Subsea Field Development
The complete paper discusses a floating wind-turbine solution that is particularly cost-competitive for deepwater locations and that can unlock the possibility of deploying large wind-powered generators far from the coastline in deep water.
Evolution of the Tension Leg Platform
The complete paper is a comprehensive discussion of the development and deployment of the tension leg platform (TLP), one of the four major platform types that also include floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) vessels; semisubmersible floating production systems; and spar platforms.
The Future of Floating Production Systems
The complete paper provides insight on the commercial drivers that significantly changed floating-production-system (FPS) design philosophy after 2014, with a particular focus on the US Gulf of Mexico (GOM).
Compositional Simulation, Artificial Intelligence Optimize Water Injection
The complete paper discusses optimization of a development plan involving low-salinity water injection.
Study Explores Effects of H2S Scavenger Byproducts on Carbon Steel
In the complete paper, the authors seek to understand the effect of triazine on the electrochemical response of a carbon-steel surface in a mixed-gas system.
Liquid-Redox Process Used for Sulfur Removal on an FPSO
The complete paper examines the decision to use hydrogen-sulfide- (H2S) removal technology, the cost of operation, and the unit’s availability over its lifetime.
Recovering More Than 70% From the Johan Sverdrup Field
Before the giant Johan Sverdrup field had produced even one barrel of oil, operator Equinor and its license partners set a recovery ambition of greater than 70% for the field.
The Spar Platform: A Design That Transformed Deepwater Development
The complete paper is an extensive review of the evolution of spar designs, focusing on the progression of work that ultimately led to the application of a transformative concept to the oil industry.
Environmentally Preferable Smart Chemicals Improve Production, Performance
This paper describes studies that confirm that enzyme-based, environmentally preferable chemistries can be used to break polymers and mitigate H2S in various systems.
Johan Sverdrup’s Digital Operations Drive Efficiency, Safety
The complete paper describes the development of the “digital field worker” at Johan Sverdrup, an initiative that has changed the approach toward not only construction and completion but also operations.
While the ongoing trends in data science and engineering analytics are going to show more benefits in lowering production costs and increasing efficiencies, the well-established reservoir and production engineering disciplines will continue to be critical for reservoir performance improvements.
Field developers have shifted the usual approach to planning and operations to a “dare to try” approach, experimenting, piloting, and directly implementing from the start a digital transformation of their activities.
The COVID-19 pandemic accelerates transformative moments, particularly the search for the best strategy and innovation to secure offshore megaprojects not underpinned by higher oil prices.
The featured papers and suggested further reading summarize the current SPE literature state of the art for H2S scavenger research and development and have been selected to give readers a broad indication from both academia and industry around the world.
AI-Based Decline-Curve Analysis Manages Reservoir Performance
Decline-curve analysis is one of the more widely used forms of data analysis that evaluates well behavior and forecasts production and reserves. This paper presents technologies that apply DCA methods to wells in an unbiased, systematic, intelligent, and automated fashion.
Downhole System Enables Real-Time Reservoir-Fluid-Distribution Mapping
This paper presents the basic concepts and architecture of the Eni Reservoir Electromagnetic Mapping borehole electromagnetic mapping system that integrates borehole EM methodology with surface EM methods to provide real-time mapping of reservoir-fluid distribution during production or injection.
Preparedness Holds Key to Management of Infectious Diseases Offshore
International SOS has led medical services operations on offshore installations globally and has managed clinical cases in which patients presented with signs and symptoms of known infectious illnesses.
Technology, Innovative Approaches Enhance Road Safety for the Oil and Gas Industry
The complete paper describes a service company’s approach to the development and application of technology and innovative solutions to improve driving performance on the basis of extensive data analysis.
Pilot Program in Mexico Classifies Oil and Gas Projects Using UN Framework
A pilot project was initiated to classify oil and gas projects in Mexico using the United Nations Framework Classification.
Formation-Fluid Microsampling While Drilling Enables Complete Reservoir Characterization
The complete paper presents a technical discussion of a new microsampling technique for LWD and a corresponding wellsite technique to provide compositional interpretation, contamination assessment, reservoir-fluid compositional grading, and reservoir compartmentalization assessment.
Cased-Hole Solution Assesses Tight Reservoirs
The complete paper presents a solution that assesses tight matrices and natural fractures at a level not previously achieved. At the tight-matrix level, advanced nuclear spectroscopy is carried out with a new pulsed-neutron device that achieves simultaneous time- and energy-domain measurements.
Subsea Multiphase Gas Compression System Offers Competitive Advantage
In 2015, the world’s first subsea multiphase gas compression system was installed offshore Norway. The system comprises two-off 5-MW machines configurable for serial or parallel compression. This system has now gained considerable and valuable operational experience.
Flow-Assurance Strategy Manages Subsea Asset Without Continuous MEG Injection
The paper describes options for hydrate and integrity management and the required modifications to both subsea and topside facilities to enable an operational philosophy change.
Developing Technologies Can Lower Subsea Tieback Cost
The traditional subsea tieback model is evolving, supported by advances in flow assurance that allow tiebacks over much longer distances and by the introduction of new technologies that increase overall cost effectiveness.
Integration of Formation Evaluation Data Overcomes Offshore Coring Challenges
A well was drilled into a prospective unconventional mudstone play offshore Norway. Two of five coring runs were successful while the rest yielded little to no core recovery. Subsequent investigation of the core substantiated that the coring issues largely had natural causes.
Public/Private Partnership Improves Healthcare Outcomes in Papua New Guinea
In 2013, ExxonMobil PNG facilitated a public/private partnership to improve healthcare education at the University of Papua New Guinea and clinical management in child health at Port Moresby General Hospital and other facilities.
Operation Planning Tool Improves Quality, Efficiency of Offshore Risk Management
The complete paper discusses Equinor’s operation planning tool, developed to present planners with the technical conditions of a platform, identify potentially dangerous combinations of concurrent activities, and propose learnings from 8 years of incident recordings.
Task Force Updates Guide Presenting Best Practices in Environmental Management
The complete paper describes the development of, and summarizes the major changes and additions to, the Environmental Management in the Oil and Gas Industry guide.
Individually and collectively, we are currently facing undeniable difficult times. But, as has been said, challenges are also opportunities. It is a proper time for all of us to pause a bit and formulate way-forward plans that suit our needs.
Both operational experience and studies of future offshore gas-field developments are showing that subsea gas-compression systems not only reduce investment costs but also increase recovery significantly.
Health, Safety, and Environment
The good news is that the 2020 HSE and Sustainability conference will go ahead at the end of July 2020 as one of the first fully virtual conferences and exhibits offered by the SPE.
Supercritical CO2 Heat Recovery System Finds Application in Oil and Gas Operations
The complete paper describes an advanced Rankine cycle process-based system that converts waste heat into usable electrical power to improve the efficiency of gas-compression stations on gas-production platforms and pipelines.
New Closed Blender Reduces Footprint, Gasification of CO2 in Waterless Fracturing
Carbon dioxide (CO2) waterless fracturing uses liquid CO2 to replace water as the fracturing fluid in reservoir stimulation. The continuity and reliability of the blender are key factors determining performance of the operation.
Incorporating Constraints Improves Least-Squares Multiwell Deconvolution
In the complete paper, the authors reduce nonuniqueness and ensure physically feasible results in multiwell deconvolution by incorporating constraints and knowledge to methodology already established in the literature.
Spatiotemporal Clustering-Based Formulation Aids Multiscale Modeling
In the complete paper, a novel hybrid approach is presented in which a physics-based nonlocal modeling framework is coupled with data-driven clustering techniques to provide a fast and accurate multiscale modeling of compartmentalized reservoirs.
Novel Solutions to Atmospheric Carbon Maintain Advantages of Petroleum
This paper presents novel approaches to carbon abatement using petroleum that have a strong chance to succeed in fulfilling technological and economic goals.
Future of Nonmetallic Composite Materials in Downhole Applications
The complete paper highlights examples of nonmetallic materials selection and qualification for upstream water-injection and producer and hydrocarbon wells and presents suggestions for future progress.
Glass-Reinforced Epoxy Effective Alternative to Alloys in Gas Wells
The complete paper describes an operator’s experience in confirming glass fiber-reinforced epoxy (GRE) as an effective alternative to high-grade corrosion-resistant alloys (CRA) to extend tubing life in high-velocity gas wells.
Integrated Work Flow Optimizes Eagle Ford Field Development
The complete paper presents a large-scale work flow designed to take a vast amount of data into consideration. The work flow can be scaled for projects of any size, depending on the data available.
Tectonically Influenced Regions See Complex Stress States, Casing Failures
In tectonically influenced regions, potential hydrocarbon traps are subject to complex states of stress. This scenario often translates into severe strike/slip (SS) and thrust-fault or reverse-fault (TF/RF) stress states.
Normalized Cumulative Production Curves Estimate Ultimate Recovery
The complete paper discusses the use of cumulative production ratio curves normalized to a given reference volume in time for different unconventional plays in North America to investigate the median trend for each play and the median ultimate recovery per play.
Learnings Applied to Reservoir Simulation of Unconventional Plays
In the complete paper, the authors revisit fundamental concepts of reservoir simulation in unconventional reservoirs and summarize several examples that form part of an archive of lessons learned.
High-Density Polyethylene Liner Safeguards Against Corrosion and Wear
The complete paper presents the results of evaluation of laboratory and demonstration trials of HDPE liner to mitigate premature failures and prolong the run life of production tubing.
Fit-for-purpose tactics likely will be of ever-increasing focus going forward. If it is not adding value, it should not be done. But “fit for purpose” encompasses a wide range of possibilities—leveraging new approaches as well as learning from old approaches and improving current approaches.
An opportunity now exists to further develop the way we solve problems by adopting agile work flows. Originating from software development in 2001, agile work flows will be a key part of driving the oil and gas industry to its next level of efficiency.
What the industry needs at this stage is a willingness to work together, share best practices, conduct innovative research, and focus on disruptive technologies that lower cost of capture and make our operations more sustainable.
Why steel casing or tubing? What does it have to do with sustainability? Is it time to change? These are a few of the questions we need to think about to move from the status quo.
Distributed Temperature Measurements Allow Fracture Diagnostics During Flowback
In the complete paper, the authors derive a novel analytical solution to model the temperature signal associated with the shut-in during flowback and production periods.
Overcoming Challenges in Chemical EOR During Polymer Breakthrough
The complete paper discusses the importance of adequate preparation and the approaches used to overcome challenges of EOR operations, including handling back-produced polymer.
Four-Injector Polymer Pilot Expands to 80 New Injectors Using Modular Concept
The complete paper presents steps to accelerate enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in a Grimbeek field from a four-injector pilot to 80 new injectors in a rapid deployment.
Coiled Tubing Gas Lift Revives Dead Wells in South Pakistan
This paper describes a coiled tubing gas lift (CTGL) technique successfully used to restart production from two pilot wells in a mature field in Pakistan that had been shut in since 2015.
Integrated Optimization Process Advances Steamflood Performance
Duri Field in Indonesia is the largest active steamflood project in the world. The field produces 73,000 BOPD, and 10,000 optimization jobs are executed annually to support base production.
Testing Tool Conveyed by Coiled Tubing Enables Multiple Tasks in One Run
Some well-testing operations are executed by performing multiple runs in hole using slickline and coiled tubing (CT). A technology has been developed that combines many of these operations, including contingency stimulation activities, into one run.
Coiled Tubing Sets Packers Precisely During Offshore Well Abandonment
The complete paper discusses the systematic approach adopted by a service company to achieve the goal of safely abandoning wells offshore southwest Brazil with different completion types using light workover vessels.
New Acidizing Method Improves Stimulation in Deep, High-Temperature Offshore Well
The complete paper discusses a method of stimulating deep, high-temperature offshore wells by combining an efficient single-phase retarded acid (SPRA) system and an engineered, degradable, large-sized particulate and fiber-laden diverter (LPFD).
Intervention Work Flow Improves Injection Coverage in Tight Carbonate Reservoirs
The complete paper discusses an advanced matrix-stimulation work flow that brings reliability and flexibility to the acidizing of tight carbonate water injectors and has delivered injectivity improvements tight carbonate onshore reservoirs in the Middle East.
Multiple-Source Data Provide Insight Into Hydraulic Fracture Geometries
The complete paper demonstrates the benefits of honoring data measurements from a multitude of potential sources to help engineers do a better job of including more diagnostics into routine operations to provide additional insight and result in improved models and completion designs.
Advancing Production Flow Profiling With Subatomic Fingerprints and Big-Data Analytics
This paper describes a smart-tracer-portfolio testing and design solution for multistage hydraulic fracturing that will, write the authors, enable operators to reduce operating cost significantly and optimize production in shale wells.
Modified Inverse-Injectivity Method for Stimulation Evaluation Proves Effective
In the complete paper, the inverse-injectivity method of evaluating matrix-stimulation performance is modified and validated with real data of two matrix-acidizing operations in a gas-condensate field.
The papers summarized in this year’s feature demonstrate the application and versatility of coiled-tubing-based solutions to different phases of a well’s lifecycle, from exploration through production and, finally, to abandonment.
Several well-stimulation products and techniques have been seen to benefit well productivity from recent field trials and implementations in carbonate reservoirs, including simpler acid fluid systems, integrated work flows, and coiled-tubing bottomhole assemblies.
A new real-time-visualization (RTV) technology combined with high-resolution pressure reading and acoustic sensors is being used to overcome operational difficulties and to optimize stimulation efforts by reducing uncertainty.
In difficult times, there is naturally a focus on maximizing the operational efficiency of existing assets, including enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) operations and looking for capital-efficient ways to increase the resource base in existing assets.
Study Uses Engineered Vesicles for Cement-Integrity Applications
In the complete paper, a novel system that uses engineered features of permeable polymeric shell walls for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo is described.
Improved Drilling Efficiencies Using Offline Cementing Saves Time, Reduces Costs
The complete paper presents a case study in which offline cementing improved operational efficiency by reducing drilling times and provided significant cost savings.
Hybrid Ultradeepwater-Riser Configuration Saves Costs, Pushes Depths
The single independent riser (SIR) is a hybrid riser configuration optimized for ultradeepwater field development. The SIR is composed of a flexible jumper and a rigid part vertically tensioned by means of distributed or continuous buoyancy.
Machine-Learning Approach Improves Deepwater Facility Uptime
This paper describes an automated work flow that uses sensor data and machine-learning (ML) algorithms to predict and identify root causes of impending and unplanned shutdown events and provide actionable insights.
Slide-Drilling Guidance System Optimizes Directional Drilling Path
The amount of uncertainty related to directional drilling makes accurate drilling challenging, leaving much to human know-how and interpretation. Additionally, few path-planning methods in the literature consider the directional steering tool being used.
Multilateral Offshore Well Completed With Multistage Proppant Fracturing
The complete paper discusses the successful execution of the first offshore multilateral well completed for multistage high-pressure proppant stimulation, according to the authors, in the Black Sea offshore Romania.
Annular Ledge Formation Method Allows Sidetracking in Multilateral Wells
This paper describes the analysis of sidetracks drilled in an open hole by an annular ledge formation method with a downhole motor in multilateral wells.
Deep-Learning Techniques Classify Cuttings Volume of Shale Shakers
A real-time deep-learning model is proposed to classify the volume of cuttings from a shale shaker on an offshore drilling rig by analyzing the real-time monitoring video stream.
A Look at the Aasta Hansteen Norwegian Deepwater Spar FPSO
The complete paper describes the overall project execution of the Aasta Hansteen field development on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) north of the Arctic Circle. It is the deepest field yet developed on the NCS in 1300 m of water.
Ultrasonic Log Response Evaluates Barrier Cells for Cementing Applications
This study used ultrasonic logging to evaluate reference barrier cells constructed with known defects. The cell concept was developed with an emphasis on low cost and ease of use.
Intelligent Completion Installations Instrumental in Brazilian Presalt Development
The complete paper presents a discussion of the use of intelligent well completion in Santos Basin Presalt Cluster wells.
Fatigue Prediction for Extended Riser Life and Improved Vessel-Response Analysis
This paper presents a fatigue-prediction methodology designed to extend the life of unbonded flexible risers and improve the accuracy of floating production, storage, and offloading vessel response analysis.
Prophets of doom have argued that there will be no cyclical upturn this time, that conventional offshore oil and gas developments, with the odd exception, have been squeezed out of the cost curve by the rise of tight oil. Yet there are signs of recovery that might breathe life back into the sector.
The future of intelligent operations in our industry is being driven by advances from other sectors that have been embraced for petroleum applications. Foundational changes already taking place include advances in the type and volume of data being acquired and how the data are used.
Multilateral and Complex-Trajectory Wells
Although multilateral and long-reach wells are common, the technological development is not complete. Effective implementation of digital technology requires complementary development of the technology itself.
Cementing and Zonal Isolation
This year, excellent papers have been presented, augmenting our knowledge and responding to the challenges of complex wells and efficiency requirements. At the same time as we “Strengthen the Core,” we continue to focus on design, delivery, and evaluation of cementing operations.
Study Correlates Hydrate Blockage Risk and Gas/Liquid Flow Pattern in Horizontal Pipelines
This paper analyzes the risk of hydrate formation and blockage, aiming at various gas/liquid flow patterns and considering the phase distribution and interface distribution characteristics of different flow patterns.
Prescriptive Analytics Aids Completion Optimization in Unconventionals
This paper discusses a prescriptive analytics framework to optimize completions in the Permian Basin.
Analysis of Athabasca Oil Sands Investigates SAGD Performance Variability
Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) performance in bitumen-recovery projects in Alberta is affected by geological deposits, reservoir quality, and operational experience.
Rapid Forecast Calibration Using Nonlinear Simulation Regression With Localization
The industry increasingly relies on forecasts from reservoir models for reservoir management and decision making. However, because forecasts from reservoir models carry large uncertainties, calibrating them as soon as data come in is crucial.
What Role Will LNG Play in Balancing Gas Demand in the MENA Region?
The complete paper analyzes the role of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in balancing the natural gas demand in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region.
Natural Gas Processing and Handling
In 2019, the US experienced the lowest natural gas prices since 2016. This was despite natural gas consumption increasing in the residential and commercial sector by 2% (between October and December) according to the US Energy Information Administration.
Integrated Design Assessment Optimizes Layout and Engineering of Timor Gas Field
The complete paper presents an integration of geology, geohazards, geophysics, and geotechnical assessments for a design of an offshore gas production facility and an associated export pipeline.
Polymer-Flood Field Pilot Enhances Recovery of Heavy Oils on Alaska’s North Slope
Although polymer flooding has become a promising enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique, no field tests have been performed to date in Alaska’s underdeveloped heavy-oil reservoirs.
Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensors Characterize Flow-Control-Device Performance
The complete paper describes piloting the collection and analysis of distributed temperature and acoustic sensing (DTS and DAS, respectively) data to characterize flow-control-device (FCD) performance and help improve understanding of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) inflow distribution.
Multilevel Strategies Improve History Matching of Complex Reservoir Models
The complete paper explores the use of multilevel derivative-free optimization for history matching, with model properties described using principal component analysis (PCA) -based parameterization techniques.
Model Error Estimation Improves Forecasting
The results of the authors’ research showed promising benefits from the use of a systematic procedure of model diagnostics, model improvement, and model-error quantification during data assimilations.
New Modeling and Simulation Techniques Optimize Completion Design and Well Spacing
Proper lateral and vertical well spacing is critical for efficient development of unconventional reservoirs. Much research has focused on lateral well spacing but little on vertical spacing, which is challenging for stacked-bench plays such as the Permian Basin.
Well-Completion System Supported by Machine Learning Maximizes Asset Value
In this paper, the authors introduce a new technology installed permanently on the well completion and addressed to real-time reservoir fluid mapping through time-lapse electromagnetic tomography during production or injection.
The synopses in this feature show how machine learning can provide accurate prediction of annular pressure buildup, first-year oil production, and (in conjunction with novel casing accessories) the time and location of water breakthrough along a lateral wellbore.
Reviewing a myriad of papers presented at different conferences during the past year, I can group the current trends in heavy-oil operations and research into two major categories: Process optimization and use of chemicals as additives to steam and water.
History Matching and Forecasting
Most history-matching studies have fixed resources—that is, the team of engineers and geoscientists is predetermined. Moreover, the deadlines are always very strict. This constrained scenario often leads to an unfortunate result: The quality of the study suffers.
Mass Implementation of Ultrahigh-Speed ESP Systems Increases Reliability, Savings
This paper presents the results of a 3-year project aimed at mass field implementation of ultrahigh-speed (UHS) electric submersible pump (ESP) systems in western Siberia.
Transient Plunger-Lift Model Improves Prediction of Liquid Unloading From Gas Wells
Natural-gas wells suffer from liquid loading if the gas-flow rate is insufficient to carry liquids to the surface. Because of the technique’s many advantages, plunger lift has been used widely in gas wells for the removal of liquid columns and the rescue of dying gas wells from liquid loading.
Expandable HP/HT Liner Hanger Increases Pressure Integrity
This paper describes a high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) expandable liner hanger product that offers metal-to-metal and elastomer sealing capabilities at the liner top in the host casing.
Technique Overcomes Scarcity of Solubility Data in Scale Prediction for HP/HT Conditions
The complete paper describes the generation of additional fundamental solubility data under HP/HT conditions and comparison of the obtained values with several existing models.
Quantitative Seismic Interpretation Identifies Sweet Spots in Organic-Rich Mudrocks
In this study, the authors use a quantitative seismic interpretation work flow (QSI) based on a rock-physics template in estimating the uncertainty of the geochemical properties of organic mudrocks of the Shublik formation of the Alaskan North Slope.
Least-Squares Migration Technique Improves Imaging and Inversion Offshore China
In this paper, the authors propose a least-squares Q migration (LSQM) method that combines the benefits of both LSM and Q prestack depth migration (QPSDM) to improve the amplitude fidelity and image resolution of seismic data.
Production-Logging Technologies Enhance Inflow Profiling in Deepwater Gulf of Mexico
This paper discusses the effectiveness of third-generation (Gen3) production-logging-tool (PLT) technology, which uses co-located digital sensors for simultaneous acquisition of flow data to provide the most accurate characterization of the flow condition at each depth surveyed.
Virtual Metering Tool Brings Real-Time Benefits to Production Monitoring
This paper describes a virtual metering tool that can monitor well performance and estimate production rates using real-time data and analytical models, integrating commercial software with an optimization algorithm that combines production and reservoir information.
Cost-Effective Validation of HP/HT Subsea Equipment Using Seawater Hydrostatic Head
The complete paper presents a practical approach for validating design-verification analysis for subsea equipment, using a representative pressure valve block to correlate finite-element analysis (FEA) predictions for strain changes with actual measured changes.
Maintaining Seismic-Focused Exploration During Downturn Yields Benefits
This paper demonstrates how maintaining investment in high-quality 3D seismic during the last downturn, together with selective exploration, quality geoscience, application of new technologies, and efficiently maturing discoveries to early cash flow, was successful in sustaining future production.
Machine-Learning-Based Early-Warning System Maintains Stable Production
This paper describes an accurate, three-step, machine-learning-based early warning system that has been used to monitor production and guide strategy in the Shengli field.
Dynamometer-Card Classification Uses Machine Learning
The complete paper explains the steps taken to improve surveillance of beam pumps using dynamometer-card data and machine-learning techniques and reviews lessons learned from executing the operator’s first artificial intelligence project.
Just as the unconventional revolution has transformed our industry during the past decade, it has also dominated the world of artificial lift. In fact, it can be difficult to find an artificial lift paper these days that does not address, in some way, artificial lift systems in unconventional wells.
Production monitoring requires heightened degrees of precision and efficiency as operations are streamlined and projects are evaluated continuously. This month’s feature focuses on innovative technologies that have been implemented in environments ranging from the Gulf of Mexico to China.
High Pressure/High Temperature
One would think that, in these challenging times, high-pressure/high-temperature technology and projects would be put on the back burner, with everybody chasing zipper-fractured barrels from shale. Well, it is not so.
Happily, in this past year, we witnessed several examples of marriage between two themes—exciting technology advances and the recent economic downturn. In other words, necessity for survival in hard times provided the impetus for innovation.
Semantic Framework Aligns Real-Time Drilling-Management and Control Applications
The complete paper presents a drilling semantic framework that allows software solutions to achieve automatic and versatile self-configuration.
Test Methodology Optimizes Selection of Fluids for Gasfield Development
For the development of the Dvalin high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gas field in the Norwegian Sea, a completion scheme using standalone screens is planned.
Addressing Challenges in Rig-Based Drilling Advisory System Deployment
The complete paper presents a process used to successfully implement a rig-based drilling advisory system (RDAS) across a mixed group of rig contractors.
Real-Time Measurements Improve Managed-Pressure Operations in HP/HT North Sea Well
This paper describes how new technology was implemented and deployed through a downhole acoustic network through a sequence of runs in complex North Sea wells under managed-pressure conditions.
Field Applications of Constrained Multiwell Deconvolution
This paper applies a new constrained multiwell deconvolution algorithm to two field cases: a gas reservoir with two producers and an oil reservoir with three producers and one injector.
Sensor Array Enables Accurate Profiling of Produced Fluids During Drillstem Tests
This paper describes the use of a downhole temperature-sensor array during a commingled drillstem test (DST) to determine the density of produced fluids accurately.
Diagnostic Tool Identifies Factors in Well-Productivity Decline
Wells in deepwater reservoirs show significant rate decline with time as the result of various causes. A diagnostic tool for quantification of factors influencing well-productivity decline is presented in this paper.
Integrated Approach Identifies Formation Damage in Unfavorable Conditions
The success of water-conformance operations often depends on clear identification of the water-production mechanism. Such assessment can be complicated significantly when formation damage is also occurring.
Insights From Interval Pressure Transient Tests Derive Key Fracture Parameters
The complete paper describes the shortcomings of traditional well testing methods and the methodology and results of applying wireline-conveyed IPTT in a light-oil reservoir offshore Norway.
Artificial-Intelligence-Driven Timelines Help Optimize Well Life Cycle
This paper discusses how oil and gas companies are using a new generation of AI-driven applications powered by computational-knowledge graphs and AI algorithms to create a digital knowledge layer for oil and gas wells that provides a timeline of significant well events.
Real-Time Data From Wired Drillpipe Leads to Improvement in Drilling Performance
This paper shows how high-frequency, real-time drilling data from wired drillpipe has helped optimization of drilling performance and achievement of additional improvements in the New Mexico Delaware Basin.
Intelligent Drilling Advisory System Optimizes Performance
In the current work, a rig advisory system is developed to continually improve rate of penetration (ROP) and drilling performance. An intelligent drilling advisory system (IDAS), based on a soft closed-loop solution with multiple regression analysis has been established.
Without exception, the featured articles reflect increased volumes of surface and downhole data that are being captured and analyzed to enable deep learning, improved efficiency, safety, and value.
In my inaugural column as editor of the Well Testing Technology Focus feature, I want to shine a light on the notable trend among operators of seizing on the tremendous untapped potential that exploration and appraisal wells represent for far-field reservoir characterization and connectivity.
Drilling Systems Automation and Management
Drilling systems automation (DSA) is moving into commercial activities on a broad front. Equipment suppliers are delivering automated drilling-control systems, and everyone (equipment suppliers, service companies, drilling contractors, operators) is delivering systems-automation applications.
One of the frustrating aspects of well-productivity analysis is identifying the causes of lower-than-expected production/injection during initial well lifetime. Our task is to evaluate the multivariate aspects of well design.
Study Investigates Smart Waterflooding in Sandstone Reservoirs
In this paper, the authors consider the effect of water chemistry on water/rock interactions during seawater and smart waterflooding of reservoir sandstone cores containing heavy oil.
Data-Acquisition Optimization Maximizes Value of Mature Oil-Rim Reservoirs
The XamXung field offshore Sarawak, Malaysia, is a 47-year brownfield with thin remaining oil rims that have made field management challenging. The dynamic oil-rim movement has been a key subsurface uncertainty, particularly with the commencing of a redevelopment project.
Personnel Benefit From Advanced Drilling Simulators for Well-Control Training
This paper focuses on the preparation for, and implementation of, well-control training, while highlighting the integration of people skills into curricula and what advantages operators and drilling contractors have obtained.
Liquid-Loading-Mitigation Strategies Maximize Recovery From Gas Reservoirs
To predict liquid-loading tendencies and to identify opportunities for production enhancement, the performance of 150 gas wells was analyzed in two gas fields in India.
Heavy-Oil Steamflood Validates Machine-Learning-Assisted Model
This paper updates a previous case study and presents the results of actual implementation of an optimized steam-injection plan based on the model framework.
Capacitance-Resistance Model Used for Integrated Detection of Water Production
The objective of this study is to show how the capacitance-resistance model (CRM) was used on this field and how it validated the use of other independent methods. This paper demonstrates that integration of different sources of data in reservoir management is critical.
Integrated Approach to Well-Leak Diagnostics Meets Success Offshore Timor Sea
This case study discusses the methodology that underlies the successful determination of the depths and the radial locations in the outer casing strings of multiple leaks in an offshore well.
Snubbing Unit Brings Middle East Well With Underground Blowout Under Control
This paper describes the mobilization of a snubbing unit and blowout preventer (BOP) stack in the Middle East that enabled a well with an underground blowout and surface broaching to be brought under control within a short time.
Artificial Intelligence Transforms Offshore Analog Fields Into Digital Fields
This paper details how artificial intelligence was used to capture analog field-gauge data with a dramatic reduction of cost and an increase in reliability.
Field Trial of Cloud-Connected Wireless Completion System
This paper describes the development and field trials of a cloud-connected, wireless intelligent completion system that enables long-term monitoring and interval control to enhance production management by connecting the user wirelessly from the desktop to downhole inflow-control valves.
Remote Sensing Imagery Improves Safety and Logistics of Arctic Operations
Many forms of remote sensing imagery can be used, along with data sets and the resultant products, to improve the efficiency and safety of upstream oil and gas operations on the North Slope of Alaska.
Digital Data Acquisition
Welcome to the debut of the Digital Data Acquisition feature. The new feature comes from the desire of readers and reviewers to broaden the scope of JPT’s coverage of developments related to digital transformation and the applications that the industry can derive from these exciting possibilities.
Study Assesses Incentives, Development Strategies for Peruvian Mature Heavy Oil
The complete paper explores technical and economic development options to produce heavy-oil resources at commercial rates and showcases three optimization scenarios of higher recovery efficiency aimed at increasing net present value at the basin level.
The bulk of the literature on enhanced oil recovery from the past year has been devoted to an improved understanding of trends started more than a decade ago with physical and numerical modeling.
Mature Fields and Well Revitalization
Production decline with field maturing is a natural phenomenon, but the efforts to mitigate this decline are truly remarkable. Achieving this feat requires not only a deeper understanding of the subsurface process involved but also a total synergy between the various disciplines engaged.
Fiber-optic technologies—distributed temperature sensing and distributed acoustic sensing—have been experiencing an ever-increasing number of applications in the oil and gas industry as monitoring systems.
Value of ROV Data Extends to Decommissioning Strategy
The complete paper describes the potential global scientific value of video and other data collected by ROVs.
Smart Robotic System Tracks Buried Pipelines, Inspects for External Damage
The complete paper describes the development of a smart robotic inspection system for noncontact condition monitoring and fault detection in buried pipelines.
Isolator Tool for High-Frequency Torsional Oscillation Proves Effective
This paper presents dynamic simulations, prototype testing, and field-test results of a BHA component that isolates the upper part of the BHA from HFTO.
BHA Behavior-Prediction Model Offers Potential for Automated Analysis
A new 3D drillstring model determines the static and dynamic behavior of bottomhole assemblies (BHAs) in realistic wellbores.
Resolving Torsional Vibration in Limestone Reservoirs Reduces Equipment Damage
This paper examines multiple factors that can affect the severity of stick/slip and measures their actual effect.
New Technology Reduces High Water Production in Heavy-Oil Field in Oman
Field N is a complex heavy-oil field in the north of the Sultanate of Oman. The dynamic behavior of Field N is characterized by strong aquifer and is dominated by bottomwater drive.
Automated Approach Optimizes Flow-Control Device Placement in SAGD Completions
The complete paper presents an automated approach to optimizing placement of flow-control devices (FCDs) in SAGD well-pair completions.
Coupled 3D Simulator Models Wastewater-Injection-Induced Seismicity
This paper presents a coupled 3D fluid-flow and geomechanics simulator developed to model induced seismicity resulting from wastewater injection.
PRMS Classifications: Updated Methodology for Resource Inventory Management
This paper presents a methodology that provides the upstream industry with a robust approach to petroleum inventory management.
Horizontal Infill Well With AICDs Improves Production in Mature Field
This paper compares the performance of three mature-field horizontal infill wells, one of which is completed with autonomous inflow-control devices (AICDs).
Subsea Water-Treatment System Installed in Pilot Test at Ekofisk
A subsea water-treatment system designed to leverage space availability, steady temperatures, lower bacteria levels, and other natural benefits of the seabed environment was successfully installed during pilot testing at the Ekofisk field offshore Norway.
Current efforts demonstrate that industry is undertaking responsible scientific, social, and environmental management.
Analytical Study Examines Production of Multistage Horizontal Wells in the Bakken
Multistage horizontal well designs were first implemented in the Bakken in 2007. Since then, more than 12,000 wells have been completed in either the Middle Bakken or Three Forks zones.
Production and Facilities
Novel development work continues to focus on improving preventative maintenance and risk-based inspections.
Bits and Bottomhole Assemblies
Development of effective solutions must start with appropriate characterization and identification of the specific modes of vibration.
In recent years, the participation of midstream water companies has changed the dynamics of water management.
Low-Toxicity Polymer Fluid Developed for Environmentally Sensitive Offshore Drilling
Reduced-Friction Centralizers Field-Tested for Ultraextended-Reach-Drilling Completions
The complete paper documents the development, laboratory- and field testing, and lessons learned from a project to evaluate coated centralizers.
Intermittent Gas Lift Used in Hydrate Mitigation and Flare Reduction in Algeria
Hassi Messaoud is a mature oil field with more than 1,100 production wells. Approximately half of the wells are natural flow and the other half use continuous gas lift (CGL) with concentric (CCE) strings.
Surface Treatment Improves Flow Assurance and Throughput in Corroded Pipe
This paper describes a material designed to interact specifically with highly corroded and weathered pipe to enable in-place application and refurbishment.
Software System Enables Effective Flow-Assurance Management
This paper describes a smart management system used for retrieving and evaluating all flow-assurance-related data for more than 700 of the operator’s onshore and offshore wells.
Water-Based Drilling Fluid Using Nanoparticles Proves Effective in Unconventional Shales
This study focus on the design and evaluation of a customized water-based mud (NP-WBM) using silica oxide nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) and graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GNPs).
Huff ‘n’ Puff EOR Proves Effective in Gas-Condensate Reservoirs
The objective of the study described in this paper was to investigate the feasibility of huff ‘n’ puff enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in a gas-condensate reservoir.
Nonaqueous, Nondamaging Fluid Implemented Offshore Abu Dhabi
This paper covers the 7-year history of drilling-fluids application in a reservoir drilling campaign offshore Abu Dhabi, from the early use of a solids-free, brine-/water-based mud to the recent application of nondamaging, nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) with micronized acid-soluble ilmenite.
Rotary-Steerable System Concept Aims To Increase Efficiency, Reduce Costs
The advent of the rotary-steerable system (RSS) introduced an efficient way to drill both current and future wells. However, current tools still fail to replace positive displacement motors (PDMs).
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