This page pulls together technology-focused articles from various departments within JPT.
Rapid Forecast Calibration Using Nonlinear Simulation Regression With Localization
The industry increasingly relies on forecasts from reservoir models for reservoir management and decision making. However, because forecasts from reservoir models carry large uncertainties, calibrating them as soon as data come in is crucial.
Study Correlates Hydrate Blockage Risk and Gas/Liquid Flow Pattern in Horizontal Pipelines
This paper analyzes the risk of hydrate formation and blockage, aiming at various gas/liquid flow patterns and considering the phase distribution and interface distribution characteristics of different flow patterns.
What Role Will LNG Play in Balancing Gas Demand in the MENA Region?
The complete paper analyzes the role of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in balancing the natural gas demand in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region.
Prescriptive Analytics Aids Completion Optimization in Unconventionals
This paper discusses a prescriptive analytics framework to optimize completions in the Permian Basin.
Analysis of Athabasca Oil Sands Investigates SAGD Performance Variability
Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) performance in bitumen-recovery projects in Alberta is affected by geological deposits, reservoir quality, and operational experience.
Natural Gas Processing and Handling
In 2019, the US experienced the lowest natural gas prices since 2016. This was despite natural gas consumption increasing in the residential and commercial sector by 2% (between October and December) according to the US Energy Information Administration.
Integrated Design Assessment Optimizes Layout and Engineering of Timor Gas Field
The complete paper presents an integration of geology, geohazards, geophysics, and geotechnical assessments for a design of an offshore gas production facility and an associated export pipeline.
The synopses in this feature show how machine learning can provide accurate prediction of annular pressure buildup, first-year oil production, and (in conjunction with novel casing accessories) the time and location of water breakthrough along a lateral wellbore.
Well-Completion System Supported by Machine Learning Maximizes Asset Value
In this paper, the authors introduce a new technology installed permanently on the well completion and addressed to real-time reservoir fluid mapping through time-lapse electromagnetic tomography during production or injection.
New Modeling and Simulation Techniques Optimize Completion Design and Well Spacing
Proper lateral and vertical well spacing is critical for efficient development of unconventional reservoirs. Much research has focused on lateral well spacing but little on vertical spacing, which is challenging for stacked-bench plays such as the Permian Basin.
Reviewing a myriad of papers presented at different conferences during the past year, I can group the current trends in heavy-oil operations and research into two major categories: Process optimization and use of chemicals as additives to steam and water.
Polymer-Flood Field Pilot Enhances Recovery of Heavy Oils on Alaska’s North Slope
Although polymer flooding has become a promising enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique, no field tests have been performed to date in Alaska’s underdeveloped heavy-oil reservoirs.
Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensors Characterize Flow-Control-Device Performance
The complete paper describes piloting the collection and analysis of distributed temperature and acoustic sensing (DTS and DAS, respectively) data to characterize flow-control-device (FCD) performance and help improve understanding of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) inflow distribution.
History Matching and Forecasting
Most history-matching studies have fixed resources—that is, the team of engineers and geoscientists is predetermined. Moreover, the deadlines are always very strict. This constrained scenario often leads to an unfortunate result: The quality of the study suffers.
Model Error Estimation Improves Forecasting
The results of the authors’ research showed a promising benefits from use of a systematic procedure of model diagnostics, model improvement, and model-error quantification during data assimilations.
Multilevel Strategies Improve History Matching of Complex Reservoir Models
The complete paper explores the use of multilevel derivative-free optimization for history matching, with model properties described using principal component analysis (PCA) -based parameterization techniques.
Mass Implementation of Ultrahigh-Speed ESP Systems Increases Reliability, Savings
This paper presents the results of a 3-year project aimed at mass field implementation of ultrahigh-speed (UHS) electric submersible pump (ESP) systems in western Siberia.
Transient Plunger-Lift Model Improves Prediction of Liquid Unloading From Gas Wells
Natural-gas wells suffer from liquid loading if the gas-flow rate is insufficient to carry liquids to the surface. Because of the technique’s many advantages, plunger lift has been used widely in gas wells for the removal of liquid columns and the rescue of dying gas wells from liquid loading.
Production-Logging Technologies Enhance Inflow Profiling in Deepwater Gulf of Mexico
This paper discusses the effectiveness of third-generation (Gen3) production-logging-tool (PLT) technology, which uses co-located digital sensors for simultaneous acquisition of flow data to provide the most accurate characterization of the flow condition at each depth surveyed.
Expandable HP/HT Liner Hanger Increases Pressure Integrity
This paper describes a high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) expandable liner hanger product that offers metal-to-metal and elastomer sealing capabilities at the liner top in the host casing.
Technique Overcomes Scarcity of Solubility Data in Scale Prediction for HP/HT Conditions
The complete paper describes the generation of additional fundamental solubility data under HP/HT conditions and comparison of the obtained values with several existing models.
Quantitative Seismic Interpretation Identifies Sweet Spots in Organic-Rich Mudrocks
In this study, the authors use a quantitative seismic interpretation work flow (QSI) based on a rock-physics template in estimating the uncertainty of the geochemical properties of organic mudrocks of the Shublik formation of the Alaskan North Slope.
Least-Squares Migration Technique Improves Imaging and Inversion Offshore China
In this paper, the authors propose a least-squares Q migration (LSQM) method that combines the benefits of both LSM and Q prestack depth migration (QPSDM) to improve the amplitude fidelity and image resolution of seismic data.
Machine-Learning-Based Early-Warning System Maintains Stable Production
This paper describes an accurate, three-step, machine-learning-based early warning system that has been used to monitor production and guide strategy in the Shengli field.
Virtual Metering Tool Brings Real-Time Benefits to Production Monitoring
This paper describes a virtual metering tool that can monitor well performance and estimate production rates using real-time data and analytical models, integrating commercial software with an optimization algorithm that combines production and reservoir information.
Just as the unconventional revolution has transformed our industry during the past decade, it has also dominated the world of artificial lift. In fact, it can be difficult to find an artificial lift paper these days that does not address, in some way, artificial lift systems in unconventional wells.
High Pressure/High Temperature
One would think that, in these challenging times, high-pressure/high-temperature technology and projects would be put on the back burner, with everybody chasing zipper-fractured barrels from shale. Well, it is not so.
Happily, in this past year, we witnessed several examples of marriage between two themes—exciting technology advances and the recent economic downturn. In other words, necessity for survival in hard times provided the impetus for innovation.
Cost-Effective Validation of HP/HT Subsea Equipment Using Seawater Hydrostatic Head
The complete paper presents a practical approach for validating design-verification analysis for subsea equipment, using a representative pressure valve block to correlate finite-element analysis (FEA) predictions for strain changes with actual measured changes.
Maintaining Seismic-Focused Exploration During Downturn Yields Benefits
This paper demonstrates how maintaining investment in high-quality 3D seismic during the last downturn, together with selective exploration, quality geoscience, application of new technologies, and efficiently maturing discoveries to early cash flow, was successful in sustaining future production.
Production monitoring requires heightened degrees of precision and efficiency as operations are streamlined and projects are evaluated continuously. This month’s feature focuses on innovative technologies that have been implemented in environments ranging from the Gulf of Mexico to China.
Dynamometer-Card Classification Uses Machine Learning
The complete paper explains the steps taken to improve surveillance of beam pumps using dynamometer-card data and machine-learning techniques and reviews lessons learned from executing the operator’s first artificial intelligence project.
Field Applications of Constrained Multiwell Deconvolution
This paper applies a new constrained multiwell deconvolution algorithm to two field cases: a gas reservoir with two producers and an oil reservoir with three producers and one injector.
Semantic Framework Aligns Real-Time Drilling-Management and Control Applications
The complete paper presents a drilling semantic framework that allows software solutions to achieve automatic and versatile self-configuration.
Intelligent Drilling Advisory System Optimizes Performance
In the current work, a rig advisory system is developed to continually improve rate of penetration (ROP) and drilling performance. An intelligent drilling advisory system (IDAS), based on a soft closed-loop solution with multiple regression analysis has been established.
Diagnostic Tool Identifies Factors in Well-Productivity Decline
Wells in deepwater reservoirs show significant rate decline with time as the result of various causes. A diagnostic tool for quantification of factors influencing well-productivity decline is presented in this paper.
Test Methodology Optimizes Selection of Fluids for Gasfield Development
For the development of the Dvalin high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gas field in the Norwegian Sea, a completion scheme using standalone screens is planned.
Artificial-Intelligence-Driven Timelines Help Optimize Well Life Cycle
This paper discusses how oil and gas companies are using a new generation of AI-driven applications powered by computational-knowledge graphs and AI algorithms to create a digital knowledge layer for oil and gas wells that provides a timeline of significant well events.
Real-Time Data From Wired Drillpipe Leads to Improvement in Drilling Performance
This paper shows how high-frequency, real-time drilling data from wired drillpipe has helped optimization of drilling performance and achievement of additional improvements in the New Mexico Delaware Basin.
Addressing Challenges in Rig-Based Drilling Advisory System Deployment
The complete paper presents a process used to successfully implement a rig-based drilling advisory system (RDAS) across a mixed group of rig contractors.
Without exception, the featured articles reflect increased volumes of surface and downhole data that are being captured and analyzed to enable deep learning, improved efficiency, safety, and value.
One of the frustrating aspects of well-productivity analysis is identifying the causes of lower-than-expected production/injection during initial well lifetime. Our task is to evaluate the multivariate aspects of well design.
Drilling Systems Automation and Management
Drilling systems automation (DSA) is moving into commercial activities on a broad front. Equipment suppliers are delivering automated drilling-control systems, and everyone (equipment suppliers, service companies, drilling contractors, operators) is delivering systems-automation applications.
Real-Time Measurements Improve Managed-Pressure Operations in HP/HT North Sea Well
This paper describes how new technology was implemented and deployed through a downhole acoustic network through a sequence of runs in complex North Sea wells under managed-pressure conditions.
Sensor Array Enables Accurate Profiling of Produced Fluids During Drillstem Tests
This paper describes the use of a downhole temperature-sensor array during a commingled drillstem test (DST) to determine the density of produced fluids accurately.
Integrated Approach Identifies Formation Damage in Unfavorable Conditions
The success of water-conformance operations often depends on clear identification of the water-production mechanism. Such assessment can be complicated significantly when formation damage is also occurring.
Insights From Interval Pressure Transient Tests Derive Key Fracture Parameters
The complete paper describes the shortcomings of traditional well testing methods and the methodology and results of applying wireline-conveyed IPTT in a light-oil reservoir offshore Norway.
In my inaugural column as editor of the Well Testing Technology Focus feature, I want to shine a light on the notable trend among operators of seizing on the tremendous untapped potential that exploration and appraisal wells represent for far-field reservoir characterization and connectivity.
Study Investigates Smart Waterflooding in Sandstone Reservoirs
In this paper, the authors consider the effect of water chemistry on water/rock interactions during seawater and smart waterflooding of reservoir sandstone cores containing heavy oil.
Personnel Benefit From Advanced Drilling Simulators for Well-Control Training
This paper focuses on the preparation for, and implementation of, well-control training, while highlighting the integration of people skills into curricula and what advantages operators and drilling contractors have obtained.
Liquid-Loading-Mitigation Strategies Maximize Recovery From Gas Reservoirs
To predict liquid-loading tendencies and to identify opportunities for production enhancement, the performance of 150 gas wells was analyzed in two gas fields in India.
Heavy-Oil Steamflood Validates Machine-Learning-Assisted Model
This paper updates a previous case study and presents the results of actual implementation of an optimized steam-injection plan based on the model framework.
Capacitance-Resistance Model Used for Integrated Detection of Water Production
The objective of this study is to show how the capacitance-resistance model (CRM) was used on this field and how it validated the use of other independent methods. This paper demonstrates that integration of different sources of data in reservoir management is critical.
The bulk of the literature on enhanced oil recovery from the past year has been devoted to an improved understanding of trends started more than a decade ago with physical and numerical modeling.
Mature Fields and Well Revitalization
Production decline with field maturing is a natural phenomenon, but the efforts to mitigate this decline are truly remarkable. Achieving this feat requires not only a deeper understanding of the subsurface process involved but also a total synergy between the various disciplines engaged.
Data-Acquisition Optimization Maximizes Value of Mature Oil-Rim Reservoirs
The XamXung field offshore Sarawak, Malaysia, is a 47-year brownfield with thin remaining oil rims that have made field management challenging. The dynamic oil-rim movement has been a key subsurface uncertainty, particularly with the commencing of a redevelopment project.
Study Assesses Incentives, Development Strategies for Peruvian Mature Heavy Oil
The complete paper explores technical and economic development options to produce heavy-oil resources at commercial rates and showcases three optimization scenarios of higher recovery efficiency aimed at increasing net present value at the basin level.
Fiber-optic technologies—distributed temperature sensing and distributed acoustic sensing—have been experiencing an ever-increasing number of applications in the oil and gas industry as monitoring systems.
Integrated Approach to Well-Leak Diagnostics Meets Success Offshore Timor Sea
This case study discusses the methodology that underlies the successful determination of the depths and the radial locations in the outer casing strings of multiple leaks in an offshore well.
Snubbing Unit Brings Middle East Well With Underground Blowout Under Control
This paper describes the mobilization of a snubbing unit and blowout preventer (BOP) stack in the Middle East that enabled a well with an underground blowout and surface broaching to be brought under control within a short time.
Artificial Intelligence Transforms Offshore Analog Fields Into Digital Fields
This paper details how artificial intelligence was used to capture analog field-gauge data with a dramatic reduction of cost and an increase in reliability.
Field Trial of Cloud-Connected Wireless Completion System
This paper describes the development and field trials of a cloud-connected, wireless intelligent completion system that enables long-term monitoring and interval control to enhance production management by connecting the user wirelessly from the desktop to downhole inflow-control valves.
Remote Sensing Imagery Improves Safety and Logistics of Arctic Operations
Many forms of remote sensing imagery can be used, along with data sets and the resultant products, to improve the efficiency and safety of upstream oil and gas operations on the North Slope of Alaska.
Digital Data Acquisition
Welcome to the debut of the Digital Data Acquisition feature. The new feature comes from the desire of readers and reviewers to broaden the scope of JPT’s coverage of developments related to digital transformation and the applications that the industry can derive from these exciting possibilities.
Value of ROV Data Extends to Decommissioning Strategy
The complete paper describes the potential global scientific value of video and other data collected by ROVs.
Smart Robotic System Tracks Buried Pipelines, Inspects for External Damage
The complete paper describes the development of a smart robotic inspection system for noncontact condition monitoring and fault detection in buried pipelines.
Isolator Tool for High-Frequency Torsional Oscillation Proves Effective
This paper presents dynamic simulations, prototype testing, and field-test results of a BHA component that isolates the upper part of the BHA from HFTO.
BHA Behavior-Prediction Model Offers Potential for Automated Analysis
A new 3D drillstring model determines the static and dynamic behavior of bottomhole assemblies (BHAs) in realistic wellbores.
Resolving Torsional Vibration in Limestone Reservoirs Reduces Equipment Damage
This paper examines multiple factors that can affect the severity of stick/slip and measures their actual effect.
New Technology Reduces High Water Production in Heavy-Oil Field in Oman
Field N is a complex heavy-oil field in the north of the Sultanate of Oman. The dynamic behavior of Field N is characterized by strong aquifer and is dominated by bottomwater drive.
Subsea Water-Treatment System Installed in Pilot Test at Ekofisk
A subsea water-treatment system designed to leverage space availability, steady temperatures, lower bacteria levels, and other natural benefits of the seabed environment was successfully installed during pilot testing at the Ekofisk field offshore Norway.
Automated Approach Optimizes Flow-Control Device Placement in SAGD Completions
The complete paper presents an automated approach to optimizing placement of flow-control devices (FCDs) in SAGD well-pair completions.
Analytical Study Examines Production of Multistage Horizontal Wells in the Bakken
Multistage horizontal well designs were first implemented in the Bakken in 2007. Since then, more than 12,000 wells have been completed in either the Middle Bakken or Three Forks zones.
PRMS Classifications: Updated Methodology for Resource Inventory Management
This paper presents a methodology that provides the upstream industry with a robust approach to petroleum inventory management.
Horizontal Infill Well With AICDs Improves Production in Mature Field
This paper compares the performance of three mature-field horizontal infill wells, one of which is completed with autonomous inflow-control devices (AICDs).
Current efforts demonstrate that industry is undertaking responsible scientific, social, and environmental management.
Production and Facilities
Novel development work continues to focus on improving preventative maintenance and risk-based inspections.
Bits and Bottomhole Assemblies
Development of effective solutions must start with appropriate characterization and identification of the specific modes of vibration.
In recent years, the participation of midstream water companies has changed the dynamics of water management.
Coupled 3D Simulator Models Wastewater-Injection-Induced Seismicity
This paper presents a coupled 3D fluid-flow and geomechanics simulator developed to model induced seismicity resulting from wastewater injection.
Nonaqueous, Nondamaging Fluid Implemented Offshore Abu Dhabi
This paper covers the 7-year history of drilling-fluids application in a reservoir drilling campaign offshore Abu Dhabi, from the early use of a solids-free, brine-/water-based mud to the recent application of nondamaging, nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) with micronized acid-soluble ilmenite.
Low-Toxicity Polymer Fluid Developed for Environmentally Sensitive Offshore Drilling
Reduced-Friction Centralizers Field-Tested for Ultraextended-Reach-Drilling Completions
The complete paper documents the development, laboratory- and field testing, and lessons learned from a project to evaluate coated centralizers.
Rotary-Steerable System Concept Aims To Increase Efficiency, Reduce Costs
The advent of the rotary-steerable system (RSS) introduced an efficient way to drill both current and future wells. However, current tools still fail to replace positive displacement motors (PDMs).
Intermittent Gas Lift Used in Hydrate Mitigation and Flare Reduction in Algeria
Hassi Messaoud is a mature oil field with more than 1,100 production wells. Approximately half of the wells are natural flow and the other half use continuous gas lift (CGL) with concentric (CCE) strings.
Huff ‘n’ Puff EOR Proves Effective in Gas-Condensate Reservoirs
The objective of the study described in this paper was to investigate the feasibility of huff ‘n’ puff enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in a gas-condensate reservoir.
Surface Treatment Improves Flow Assurance and Throughput in Corroded Pipe
This paper describes a material designed to interact specifically with highly corroded and weathered pipe to enable in-place application and refurbishment.
Software System Enables Effective Flow-Assurance Management
This paper describes a smart management system used for retrieving and evaluating all flow-assurance-related data for more than 700 of the operator’s onshore and offshore wells.
Water-Based Drilling Fluid Using Nanoparticles Proves Effective in Unconventional Shales
This study focus on the design and evaluation of a customized water-based mud (NP-WBM) using silica oxide nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) and graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GNPs).
Drilling and Completion Fluids
Recent research has put extensive focus on the magic of graphene in drilling fluids. Graphene, because of its thermal, electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties, improves mudcake stability and minimizes fluid loss that eventually reduces formation damage.
Horizontal and Extended-Reach Wells
Drilling has become a complex operation that requires a multitude of tasks to be managed at the same time. Not surprisingly, then, drilling automation will gain momentum in the near future to deliver consistent execution and performance safely and with good wellbore quality.
The summer of 2019 has been rife with media reports about negative gas pricing in the Permian and, given the propensity of our industry to pick a favorite horse and then all pile on it at the same time, it is not surprising when we create our own boom and bust cycles.
The papers presented here, including the additional reading papers on the potential novel applications of subsea tieback technology, focus on developing new analytical tools and new materials while providing safe, cost-effective, and reliable operations for flow assurance.
Permian Basin: Use of In-Situ Mechanical Rock Properties Improves Completions
Optimizing horizontal well placement is not limited to identifying the most-favorable reservoir, but also involves identifying the ideal target window within that reservoir.
Feasibility of Using Small-Scale GTL Plants To Mitigate Flaring in North Dakota Evaluated
Predicting Severe Slugging in Toe-Down Horizontal Wells
This paper presents the results of an experimental and modeling study that demonstrates the existence of severe slugging in systems with upward-inclined lateral flow paths, such as a toe-down well.
Managed-Pressure Cementing Provides Zonal Isolation in Deepwater Gulf of Mexico
This paper presents the design considerations, methodology, and results of two deepwater MPC operations conducted to cement production casing strings within a target operating window of approximately three-tenths of a pound.
Integrated Deepwater MPD Control System Increases Accuracy, Ease of Use
This paper presents lessons learned regarding design, testing, and installation of a completely integrated managed-pressure-drilling (MPD) control system on a deepwater drilling rig.
Aggressive Stimulation Design Yields Better Returns
The authors examine methods of adopting an aggressive approach to optimizing stimulation design to lower the break-even level of operations and evaluate the results.
Frac-Packing Previously Gravel-Packed Well Offers Alternative to Expensive Sidetracking
This paper details the design and execution of what the authors say they believe is the first successful frac-pack operation in a previously gravel-packed well.
MPD Monitoring Technique Allows Rapid Redesign, Flexibility
This work focuses on the development of specific methodologies to support managed-pressure-dilling (MPD) operations implemented on real-time diagnostic software.
Artificial Intelligence Improves Seismic-Image Reconstruction
Seismic imaging provides vital tools for the exploration of potential hydrocarbon reserves and subsequent production-planning activities. The acquisition of high-resolution, regularly sampled seismic data may be hindered by physical or financial constraints.
Data-Driven Tool Uses Amplitude-Based Statistics To Identify Seismic Fractures
The authors present a novel data-driven tool for fast fracture identification in post-stack seismic data sets.
Offshore Drilling and Completion
Measured-pressure approaches have offered much promise for some time but have been slow to reach widespread application. A spate of technical developments, deployments, trials, and applications, however, recently has pushed measured-pressure drilling and its nuanced variants to their full potential.
To continue to advance optimization in new-well completions, to cost-effectively restimulate existing wells, and to enhance recovery, will require capacity for laboratory studies and field trial programs and implementation of a range of analytical methodologies.
Digital transformation supported by data analytics and artificial intelligence can be the differentiator that allows the upstream industry to persist in the next 100 years, providing a unique foundation for innovation to enhance general public awareness and life quality.
While sand control in production wells catches much attention, water-injection wells also are subject to sand-control problems triggered by water hammer, cross flow, and backflow. Newly developed screens for water-injection wells have been demonstrated with promising results.
Industry Struggles With Enhanced Recovery for Unconventional Reservoirs
This paper reviews the IOR/EOR technologies currently being applied to unconventional oil reservoirs.
New Model Enhances Flux Management in Sand-Control Completions
This paper discusses a probabilistic flux and erosion model and work flow that extend the ability to estimate inflow through sand screens on a foot-by-foot basis along the wellbore using the well's completion details, production rate, and reservoir and bottomhole flowing pressures.
Sand-Control Technology for Water Injectors Improves Well Performance
In 2014, a research and development (R&D) project was initiated to increase the life expectancy of Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Miocene and Lower Tertiary water-injection (WI) wells, several of which had suffered a severe loss of injectivity within only a few years of completion.
Data-Driven Analytics Provide Novel Approach to Performance Diagnosis
This work describes a heuristic approach combining mathematical modeling and associated data-driven work flows for estimating reservoir-pressure surfaces through space and time using measured data.
Optimization Work Flow Maximizes Value of Unconventional Fields
Well spacing optimization is one of the more important considerations in unconventional field development.
Chemical Tracer Flowback Data Help Understanding of Fluid Distribution
This paper presents a data set involving the pumping of multiple, unique chemical tracers into a single Wolfcamp B fracture stage.
Optimization Framework Improves Mariner Field Development
The growing popularity of model-based optimization work flows has resulted in an increase in their application to field cases.
Considering Time and Space in Drilling and Completion Can Reduce Well Interference
The complete paper describes a physics-based model of interference and a sensitivity study to propose guidelines for well spacing and a drilling timeline for multiple horizontal wells in the Vaca Muerta shale.
Innovative Design and Execution Lead to Successful Grand Banks Platform Operations
The Hebron platform was successfully installed on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland and Labrador in June 2017. It consists of a single-shaft concrete gravity-based structure (GBS) supporting an integrated drilling and production topsides.
Evaluation of a Riser After 10 Years of GOM Service Life
As part of an effort to evaluate existing riser systems, an operator launched an inspection and testing program to investigate risers retrieved following well abandonment after a service life of nearly 10 years in the Gulf of Mexico.
Benefits of Low-Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors
This paper summarizes historical advancements in low-dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHIs) over the past 2 decades, discusses their advantages and limitations, and their selection criteria.
Study Evaluates Hydrate Antiagglomerants
A common hydrate-management strategy involves the use of large volumes of thermodynamic inhibitors (THIs) to operate outside the hydrate-stability region.
Improving Temperature-Logging Accuracy in Steamfloods
The objective of this study was to look at factors that can affect a temperature log and steps that can be taken to improve temperature-measurement accuracy.
Integrating Fractional Flow Into Reservoir Surveillance Improves GOM Production
A case study in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico in which pressure transient analysis, fractional flow, and production logging tools were integrated to identify correctly the cause of, and execute an effective remedy for, a well’s productivity deterioration.
Operators around the world are focusing on lowering their production costs for both conventional and unconventional assets, while oilfield service companies are responding to customers’ cost-saving requests with incremental improvements in technology, supply chains, automation, and collaboration.
Field developers are making bold step-changes to form their optimization strategies on the crests of digital transformation, using massive data analytics, machine learning, cloud computing, and data-sharing strategies for oil and gas fields in all stages of development. This trend will only grow.
What is the definition of offshore-facilities project success in the context of Industry 4.0? Generally, cost, time, and scope are the common project-success indicators. However, I believe we can expand these indicators to the social and environmental areas.
Extra-Long Subsea Tiebacks Reduce Deepwater Development Costs
The complete paper presents and discusses the authors’ technology-development program regarding very-long oil-tieback architectures (50–100 km) and enabling technologies.
One of the more technologically challenging production-chemistry applications in deep water is the control of gas hydrates. Deepwater subsea flowlines offer an almost perfect hydrate-formation environment, and control measures must be taken.
Locally Sourced, Ecofriendly Hydrate Inhibitor Effective in Simulated Offshore Environment
The complete paper investigates gas-hydrate inhibition in a simulated offshore environment using a plant extract (PE) as a local inhibitor.
Parallel Simulation and Cloud Computing Can Optimize Large-Scale Field Development
The complete paper discusses a study in which the authors propose a joint field-development and well-control-optimization work flow using high-performance parallel simulation and commercial cloud computing.
Study Advocates New Approach Toward Workplace Mental Health
This study incorporates previous learnings, as well as globally collected data, to develop a strategy that can be used to help implement an industry-specific mental health program.
JIP Prepares for Final Shallow-Water Test of Subsea Power System
The complete paper highlights elements of the technical development and an overview of the primary building blocks of the system, and presents in detail some of the challenges in developing, designing, and testing the control system.
Work Flow Determines Petrophysical Properties From As-Received Core Samples
This paper introduces a new core-analysis work flow for determining resistivity index (RI), formation factor (FF), and other petrophysical properties directly from an as-received (AR) set of core samples.
Gamma-Ray-Tool Characterization Avoids Traditional Limitations
In this paper, the authors discuss the characterization process for GR tools and how they behave in boreholes different from the one used in the University of Houston (UH) GR characterization pit.
Characterization of Volcanic Reservoirs Requires Comprehensive NMR Tests
This paper discusses a study undertaken to gain better understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characteristics of volcanic reservoirs with different lithologies.
Formation evaluation drew special attention at the 2019 International Petroleum Technology Conference Education Week in Beijing, 24–28 March 2019. The student team that worked on Integrated Formation Evaluation for Resources Exploration and Reservoir Delineation won the first-place award.
Boosting Uncovers True Value of Subsea Assets
The first subsea multiphase boosting system was installed in 1994. Since then, it has grown into a technology with a global track record.
New Technology Enables Development of Norwegian Sea Field
A new enabling technology known as electrically heat-traced flowline (EHTF) will be used to enable system startup and shutdown and to maintain production fluids outside of the hydrate envelope during steady-state operation.
Data Mining of Hidden Danger in Operational Production
The value of hidden-danger data stored in text can be revealed through an approach that can help sort and interpret information in an ordered way not used previously in safety management.
Data-Driven Management Strategy Can Reduce Environmental Effect of Production Plants
This paper highlights the results of a test campaign for a tool designed to predict the short-term trends of energy-efficiency indices and optimal management of a production plant.
Transforming Natural Resource Management for a Sustainable Planet
This paper presents the recent expansion of UNFC guidance to cover social and environmental effects and the further transformation of the system to make it a valuable tool in resource management for governments and businesses.
Focus on Individual Decision Making Drives Safety Journey
This paper discusses ExxonMobil’s focus on the next phase of its safety journey through advancement of individual awareness and decision making to help drive breakthroughs in the operator’s vision of safety.
Health, Safety, and Environment
A critical support role within the upstream sector is played by the thousands who work in HSE and sustainability. The HSE performance of the industry has improved dramatically over the decades because of technological advances and a greater understanding of systems, processes, and human performance.
Alternative solutions to traditional subsea production systems received more attention when the oil price was low. During the past few years, more focus has been on how to use existing infrastructure to obtain more oil and gas from reservoirs than originally planned.
The Cloud Offers Opportunity for Oil and Gas Cybersecurity
The author argues that the advent of cloud technology should not be regarded as a further challenge to security but an opportunity to revitalize and improve a company’s defenses dramatically.
Limitations for Compositional Modeling in Vaca Muerta Numerical Simulation
In this paper, the authors show the limitation of CEOS for modeling reservoir behavior of liquid-phase black and volatile oil in highly undersaturated reservoirs.
Integrated Asset Model Enables Simulation of Complex, Multifield Asset
New Analytical Model Enhances Understanding of Connection Strengths
This paper presents a set of equations that extends the approach of the original single-shouldered equation to account for a second shoulder, and helps to understand connection strengths better.
Data Mining Effective for Casing-Failure Prediction and Prevention
This paper is part of an ongoing effort to minimize the likelihood of failure using data-mining and machine-learning algorithms.
Integrated Approach Improves Modeling of Rejuvenation in Unconventional Plays
An integrated understanding of geomechanical effects, fracture propagation, and reservoir dynamics is critical in the efficient and cost-effective application of rejuvenation technologies for unconventional plays.
Laboratory Investigation Targets EOR Techniques for Organic-Rich Shales
This paper involved laboratory experiments introducing miscible gases into core samples to investigate enhanced oil recovery (EOR) mechanisms for Permian Basin shales to provide information to design field tests for a huff ’n’ puff (HNP) recovery process.
Open-Source Tool Kit Uses 3D Printing for Micromodel Generation
In this paper, the authors present an open-source tool kit for the generation of microfabricated transparent models of porous media (micromodels) from image data sets using optically transparent 3D polymer additive manufacturing (3D printing or sintering).
In my view, we still do not possess a full understanding of oil production in unconventional fractured reservoirs. Our ability to forecast such assets remains elusive, even with copious amounts of analytics, mountains of data, and an arsenal of machine-learning tools.
For this year’s feature, the selected papers provide innovative work flows that assist in determining productivity, reduce the effect of uncertainty conditions, and spark rejuvenation.
In recent years, some effort has been made to use EOR techniques, particularly CO2 injection, to extract additional oil and gas from unconventional resources. This has the potential to change the dynamics (again) of oil production from these tight and difficult reservoirs.
Electromagnetic-Based Tool Allows In-Situ Inspection of Multiple Metallic Tubulars
A new pulsed-eddy-current (PEC) electromagnetic (EM)-based tool called an enhanced pipe-thickness-detection tool (ePDT) has been introduced for the corrosion inspection of multiple pipes.
Study Uses Wellbore, Reservoir, Fracture Models To Determine Productivity
This paper demonstrates the need to couple the wellbore model to the reservoir-simulation and hydraulic-fracturing model in shale formations to optimize well landing, trajectory profile, and long-term productivity.
Work Flow Uses Vaca Muerta Data To Optimize Asset Evaluation
This paper describes a comprehensive optimization-under-uncertainty work flow that combines a simulation-based approach with semiautomatic work flows and high-speed computers to facilitate the process of decision-making for investors.
Gas Injection Evaluated for EOR in Organic-Rich Shale
In the first paper, a comprehensive experimental evaluation of gas injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in organic-rich shale and, in the second, the effect of fluid transport in organic-rich shale on recovery mechanisms under gas injection.
The Feasibility of CO2 Injection for IOR in Shale Reservoirs
Numerical simulation methods of compositional models were incorporated with logarithmically spaced, locally refined, and dual-permeability reservoir models and local grid refinement (LGR) of hydraulic-fracture conditions to investigate the feasibility of CO2 injection in shale oil reservoirs.
Exponential thinking is called the “exponential surprise factor.” These underpinnings are observed on the tubular mechanics side also through data analytics, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and cognitive processes.
Phosphonate-Based Inhibitor Reduces Scaling Potential of Seawater
In this study, a laboratory analysis was conducted to study the effect of a phosphonate-based scale inhibitor on a mixture of hypersaline Arabian Gulf seawater and formation water under high-temperature/high-pressure conditions.
Study Explores Mechanisms of Surface Damage on Coiled Tubing
In this paper, the authors study the stress status of CT string held by gripper blocks, the axial force distribution of gripper blocks, and the longitudinal resonance of CT strings in vertical wells.
Seismic and Seismochemical Stimulation Increases Well Injectivity and Productivity
This paper discusses the potential of seismic and seismochemical well simulation in particular within the scope of this recent technology.
Computational Model Predicts Breakdown Pressures in Unconventional Plays
This paper presents a newly developed model to predict the breakdown pressures in cased and perforated wells.
Surface Drilling Data Can Help Optimize Fracture Treatment in Real Time
This paper presents a unique work flow that addresses in real time the challenges of perforation and fracture-treatment design while accounting for the lithologic and stress variability along the wellbore and its surroundings.
Interwell EOR Pilot Proves Advantages of Polymer Flooding
This paper discusses an enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) polymer-flood pilot at the Captain field in the UK North Sea during 2011–2013.
Chemical-Diversion Agents Can Aid Acid Fracturing in Openhole Horizontal Wells
This paper presents a newly designed triaxial fracturing system and describes a series of experiments that verified the validity of tool-free chemical diversion for multistage fracturing of openhole horizontal wells.
The coiled-tubing (CT) industry, like other well-intervention segments, has applied lean philosophies to some aspects of its management, operations, processes, and equipment. When it comes to CT application to specific in-well operations, no two wells are the same.
As gas development focuses more on tight and ultratight formations, the challenges to produce economically become diverse and more intense. One main challenge faced while fracturing a well is a high fracture gradient.
One of my best moments is to have made the technical case for polymer flooding and to see the fruits of this several decades later. As is so often the case in our industry, my contribution stands alongside those of many others in the intervening years who have all made the EOR journey possible.
The fourth industrial revolution is taking the oil and gas business by storm. Many companies have increased resources for big-data analytics and machine learning. Though no one sees physical oilfield services as in decline, development in these areas may take a back seat to artificial intelligence.
Factory-Model Approach Improves Performance of Coiled-Tubing Drillout
This paper presents a factory-model approach to improving CT drillout performance that has been used successfully for more than 3 years and has become standard practice.
In-Line Quench-and-Temper Technology Applied to CT Improves Safety and Reliability
This paper discusses the advantages of the in-line quench-and-temper (Q&T) process, which enhances overall CT life and reliability by producing tubing with more-uniform microstructure throughout its entire length, increased material strength, and improved bend-fatigue performance.
Real-Time Formation-Face-Pressure Analysis Improves Acid-Fracturing Operations
This paper contains a detailed discussion of methods and a software tool that has been developed to generate information that predicts formation-face pressures in real time with the help of live bottomhole-pressure data.
Largest WAG Pilot in Giant Al-Shaheen Field Reveals Optimization Methods
This paper discusses the operation of the largest offshore high-pressure water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection pilot using hydrocarbon (HC) gas, with a gas-injection capacity of approximately 100 MMscf/D, in the giant Al-Shaheen field offshore Qatar.
Digital Transformation Increases Value in an Omani Thermal EOR Asset
A thermal asset in Oman is characterized by a large-scale steam-drive/cyclic-steam-soak development project, underpinned by extensive data gathering.
Analytics Solution Helps Identify Rod-Pump Failure at the Wellhead
This paper presents an analytics solution for identifying rod-pump failure capable of automated dynacard recognition at the wellhead that uses an ensemble of ML models.
Augmented Artificial Intelligence Improves Data Analytics in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs
The authors of this paper propose a novel work flow for the problem of building intelligent data analytics in heavy-oil fields.
Ultrasonic Imaging Technology Evaluates a Lateral-Entry Module
This paper presents the data collected by an ultrasound downhole scanner, demonstrating a novel method for diagnosing multilateral wells.
U-Shaped Re-Entry Drilling Revitalizes Depleted Reservoirs Offshore Congo
Against the background of a low-oil-price environment, a redevelopment project was launched to give a second life to a shallow, depleted, mature offshore Congo oil field with viscous oil (22 °API) in a cost‑effective manner.
Well-Abandonment Solutions Use Bismuth and Thermite Effectively and Safely
This paper demonstrates a new way to create gas-tight seals during well abandonment, overcoming the limitations of traditional methods and reducing the operator’s liability and potential environmental impact after decommissioning has been completed.
Deepwater capital expenditure has nosedived since the oil-price crash of 2014 and has not quite recovered because of the high level of break-even prices required, but some oil companies maintained their interest in the sector and went ahead with big-ticket projects anyway.
Multilateral and Complex-Trajectory Wells
The oil industry is currently undergoing a technological transformation that will add value, improve processes, and reduce cost. Future drilling engineers will have knowledge of robotics, automation, and organizational efficiency, which is highly appealing for recruitment.
Real-Time Analytics Improves Process Safety in a Drilling-Contractor Operations Center
This paper explains how an ultradeepwater drilling contractor is applying real-time analytics and machine learning to leverage its real-time operations center to improve process safety and performance.
Isolation Barrier Valves Installed Successfully in Deepwater Gulf of Guinea
A major operator manages multiple deepwater projects in the Gulf of Guinea. This paper describes one of these, a recent 44-well project.
40 Years in the Campos Basin Lead to Wealth of Lessons Learned
This paper presents a retrospective of the most-significant technologies developed and deployed in the Campos Basin for more than 80 production systems in more than 30 oil- and gas-field developments.
Integrated Approach Overcomes Depleted-Reservoir Challenges
This paper describes challenges faced in a company’s first deepwater asset in Malaysia and the methods used to overcome these issues in the planning stage.
As you read the examples in this section, you will see that a change is already under way in that the methods that are being used are increasingly not oil-and-gas-specific but instead follow patterns that are being used in other industries.
Cementing and Zonal Isolation
I am encouraged that we, as an industy, continue to refine and tweak our practices to solve zonal-isolation and cementing challenges in every well environment in which we work. As cementing techniques are improved, so, too, are the cement-evaluation methods and work flows.
Machine Learning Optimizes Duvernay Shale-Well Performance
This paper discusses how machine learning by use of multiple linear regression and a neural network was used to optimize completions and well designs in the Duvernay shale.
New Interactive Cementing System Improves Zonal Isolation in Horizontal Wells
Hydraulic isolation of wells drilled with nonaqueous fluids (NAFs) relies heavily on eliminating mud from the annuli before placing cement.
Activating Shale Can Create Well Barriers
This paper discusses shale creep and other shale-deformation mechanisms and how an understanding of these can be used to activate shale that has not contacted the casing yet to form a well barrier.
Integrating Geomechanical Data Optimizes Completions Design
This paper demonstrates how engineers can take advantage of their most-detailed completions and geomechanical data by identifying trends arising from past detailed treatment analyses.
Effects of Completion Design on Thermal Efficiency in SAGD
This paper uses a simulation model to evaluate and compare the thermal efficiency of five different completion design cases during the SAGD circulation phase in the Lloydminster formation in the Lindbergh area in Alberta, Canada.
New Steamflooding Techniques Pay Off in Mukhaizna Field
This paper covers the staged field-development methodology, including analysis and evaluation of various development concepts, that enabled the company to optimize both completion design and artificial-lift selection, reducing downtime and lowering operating costs by nearly 50%.
Pattern-Based History Matching Maintains Consistency for Complex-Facies Reservoirs
A challenging problem of automated history-matching work flows is ensuring that, after applying updates to previous models, the resulting history-matched models remain consistent geologically.
Correlation-Based Localization Effective in Ensemble-Based History Matching
To enhance the applicability of localization to various history-matching problems, the authors adopt an adaptive localization scheme that exploits the correlations between model variables and observations.
Novel Forward Model Quantifies Uncertainty of Fracture Networks
This paper presents a work flow to match the history of reservoirs featuring complex fracture networks with a novel forward model.
Natural Gas Processing and Handling
Most underground gas-storage facilities are depleted reservoirs. What makes depleted reservoirs attractive is the presence of existing wells used to produce the reservoir, plus the geologic and engineering knowledge acquired during the development of the field.
New Gas-Separation Technology Reduces Cost, Weight, and Footprint
Hydrocarbon processing and treating systems often require large and elaborate surface facilities. When operating in challenging locations, such as deep water or the Arctic, these systems can be expensive. This paper discusses a new adsorption-based gas-separation technology platform.
The cost reduction per barrel of oil produced and the extension of sustainable production life by optimization have been two major areas of focus, but the investments in new technologies and recovery-improvement research have not received sufficient attention during the downturn.
In reviewing abstracts and papers for this feature, many impressive themes were evident—too many to cover in one editorial. I have commented on two: the advancements in unconventional completion design and the use of academia as a source of sophisticated completion analysis.
Intelligent Completion in Water-Injector Well Improves Field Development
The operator piloted a new well-completion design combining inflow-control valves (ICVs) in the shallow reservoir and inflow-control devices (ICDs) in the deeper reservoir, both deployed in a water-injector well for the first time in the company’s experience.
Mature Fractured Reservoirs Can Be Repurposed for Gas Storage
This paper discusses studies conducted on two California offshore fields that may be abandoned in the near future. These studies examined the feasibility of repurposing these fields for offshore gas storage by using their reservoir voidage and existing pipeline facilities.
Novel Approach to Sour-Gas Treatment Lowers Cost and Limits Safety Hazards
This paper investigates novel approaches to sour-gas treatment for use in the Middle East that are outside the common oil and gas market and compares them with traditional techniques.
Two-Wellhead SAGD Scheme Increases Efficiency of Heavy-Oil Development
This paper shares experience gained in the Ashalchinskoye heavy-oil field with a two-wellhead SAGD modification. As a result of a pilot for this technology in Russia, the accumulated production of three pairs of these wells is greater than 200,000 tons.
In-Situ Upgrading Process Offers Potential for Heavy-Oil Recovery
In this work, the authors developed a numerical model of in-situ upgrading (IU) on the basis of laboratory experiences and validated results, applying the model to an IU test published in the literature.
History Matching and Forecasting
Machine-learning methods have gained tremendous attention in the last decade. The underlying idea behind machine learning is that computers can identify patterns and learn from data with minimal human intervention. This is not very different from the notion of automatic history matching.
JPT Technology Minute Poll: To Which of the Top Five UN Sustainability Development Goals Do You Think the Oil and Gas Industry Will Contribute the Most?
The papers identified in the article cover sustainable development of oil and gas resources in various aspects.
JPT Technology Minute: Select Technical Papers on Flaring and Emissions Challenges
Flaring and emissions challenges have recently made news headlines around the world. The goal of this article is to engage you with this important topic by presenting a selection of recent SPE papers which address these challenges through various approaches.
Gas Lift Operations Require Accurate Predictions of Downhole Annulus Pressure
Downhole annulus pressure is required for any gas lift design. This paper presents several methods of determining annulus pressure at depth and helps determine which method is most appropriate for specific conditions.
Through-Tubing-Conveyed ESP Technology Overcomes North Slope Challenges
Electrical-submersible-pump (ESP) technology is a proven artificial-lift method for shallow, low-pressure reservoirs such as those found in the West Sak viscous oil field in Alaska.
Surface-to-Borehole Electromagnetics Hold Promise for 3D Waterflood Monitoring
The authors detail the development of a technique based on surface-to-borehole controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM), which exploits the large contrast in resistivity between injected water and oil to derive 3D resistivity distributions, proportional to saturations, in the reservoir.
Managed-Pressure Drilling Used Successfully for Offshore HP/HT Exploration Wells
This paper discusses the successful application of managed-pressure drilling (MPD) in the basin with reduction in risks and well costs.
Managed-Pressure Drilling Solves HP/HT Challenges Offshore Vietnam
This paper discusses how managed-pressure-drilling (MPD) technology led to cost savings in two wells drilled in the Hai Thach gas field offshore southern Vietnam.
Machine-Learning Approach Identifies Wolfcamp Reservoirs
This paper discusses a project with the objective of leveraging prestack and poststack seismic data in order to reconstruct 3D images of thin, discontinuous, oil-filled packstone pay facies of the Upper and Lower Wolfcamp formation.
4D Seismic With Reservoir Simulation Improves Reservoir Forecasting
This paper outlines the value of 4D for reducing uncertainty in the range of history-matched models and improving the production forecast.
4D Seismic Pilot Successfully Interprets Carbonate Reservoir
This paper describes interpretation results of a 4D seismic-monitoring program in a challenging Middle East carbonate reservoir.
Of the many steps in the journey toward maximizing run life, the first steps should be to identify the system requirements and communicate those to the vendor. This can be challenging, because operators and suppliers often speak different languages. Fortunately, international standards can help.
Last year saw continued contraction in the seismic data-acquisition industry. With this drop in acquisition business, fewer seismic data-acquisition papers were published. Nevertheless, three very good SPE papers covering important acquisition and processing topics are featured here.
This industry is one often considered reactive and overly tradition-bound. These new technologies, however—and, more importantly, the drive of these researchers to harness their capabilities—prove that petroleum engineers remain at the forefront of innovation and discovery.
High Pressure/High Temperature
We must concentrate our paper selection on technology and operating methods that make HP/HT drilling operations faster, safer, and more cost-efficient. If above-threshold drilling costs shelve a project, the project will not fly. And without projects, HP/HT know-how and equipment quickly disappears.
Study Evaluates Ability of Tailpipe Systems To Optimize Artificial Lift in Horizontal Wells
The performance of artificial-lift systems on horizontal wells is greatly influenced by both the volume of gas produced and the tendency for gas slugging.
Permanent Fiber-Optic System Monitors Oil-Rim Movement
In this paper, the authors describe a project to design, field trial, and qualify an alternative solution for real-time monitoring of the oil rim in carbonate reservoirs that overcomes these disadvantages.
Machine Learning Improves Accuracy of Virtual Flowmetering and Back-Allocation
In this study, the authors investigated a fully data-driven approach using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for real-time virtual flowmetering and back-allocation in production wells.
Continuous-Circulation Technique Drills Narrow-Margin Deepwater Wells
This paper describes the drilling of high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) deepwater wells through an ultranarrow pore-pressure fracture gradient (PPFG) window by means of technology application and strict procedural control.
Optimization Work Flow Converts Power to Performance for GOM Drilling
Time spent on bottom drilling is only approximately 10% of the time consumed by drilling operations, but this still provides a significant opportunity for savings if it can be reduced.
Revised Drilling Practices Lead to Lateral-Length Gains in Marcellus Shale
A drilling team has focused on increasing lateral lengths in the Marcellus Shale. The team determined which operational practices would need to be revised in order to drill and case laterals in excess of 18,000 ft.
Thailand Joint-Development Project Delivers MWD/LWD Benefits
A joint-development project has delivered a high-temperature measurement-while-drilling/logging-while-drilling (MWD/LWD) suite rated for 200°C. Results to date are compared with previous performance in the Gulf of Thailand (GoT).
Wireless Downhole Gauges Help Maximize Value of Appraisal Test in Abandoned Well
This paper describes the acquisition and interpretation of long-term pressure-buildup data in a plugged and abandoned deepwater appraisal well.
Analysis Quality Determines Value of Diagnostic Fracture Injection Tests
Automated Operations and Wired Drillpipe Benefit Arctic Drilling
This paper presents a case history of drilling automation system pilot deployment, including the use of wired drillpipe, on an Arctic drilling operation.
Automation-Adoption Approach Maps Human/System Interaction
This paper describes the progress of directional-drilling-automation systems along the cognitive functions and levels of automation as defined by the Levels of Automation Taxonomy (LOAT) hierarchy introduced by the Drilling Systems Automation Roadmap Industry Initiative.
Automated Real-Time Torque-and-Drag Analysis Improves Drilling Performance
In this paper, the application of a real-time T&D model is demonstrated. The process of T&D analysis was automated, and the time and cost required to run physical models offline was reduced or, in some cases, eliminated.
Study Investigates Formation Damage Induced by Water Reinjection in Unconsolidated Sands
This paper describes a coreflooding program performed with sandpacks at different permeabilities, water qualities, and injection conditions.
Flow-Simulation Model Improves Analysis of Perforated-Rock Cleanup and Productivity
Because of inherent complexities, understanding the characteristics of perforations in downhole environments is a significant challenge. Perforation-flow laboratories have been used to provide insight into cleanup and productivity mechanisms around perforation tunnels.
After-Closure Analysis of DFITs Drives Design of Hydraulic-Fracturing Programs
This paper describes a diagnostic fracture injection test-analysis program and the suitability of the results from ACAs for use in hydraulic-fracture design.
The papers selected for this issue focus on key factors in achieving a successful well test. They also apply reservoir fundamentals as well as sound engineering judgment, with examples from conventional and unconventional assets.
Drilling Systems Automation and Management
Drilling systems automation requires a digital backbone. One segment of that backbone is the interval between the drill bit and the surface. Wired pipe removes both the bandwidth and latency barriers of the available measurement-while-drilling telemetry systems.
Formation damage: Do we always need to have a high focus on its prevention, or do occasions exist when it really does not matter?
Examples of evolution in well construction during the past several years include new horizontal-well applications, breakthroughs in bit and directional-drilling technology, synthetic fluids, fracture-stimulation advancements, managed-pressure drilling, and the digital revolution.
Study of Carbonate Reservoirs Examines Fines Migration in CO2-Saturated-Brine Flow
A high-carbon-dioxide (CO2) carbonate gas field offshore Sarawak, Malaysia, is scheduled for development. Reservoirs in this region have an average clay content of 8%; more than 50% of this clay content is migratory illite, and 15% is migratory kaolinite.
Phased Pilot Approach Reduces Uncertainty in Carbonate Steamflood Development
The First Eocene is a multibillion-barrel heavy-oil carbonate reservoir in the Wafra field, located in the Partitioned Zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. After more than 60 years of primary production, expected recovery is low and provides a good target for enhanced-oil-recovery processes.
Viability of Gas-Injection EOR in Eagle Ford Shale Reservoirs
This paper studies the technical and economic viability of this EOR technique in Eagle Ford shale reservoirs using natural gas injection, generally after some period of primary depletion, typically through long, hydraulically fractured horizontal-reach wells.
Mechanistic Model Describes Wettability Change in Sandstones and Carbonates
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first surface-complexation-based model that describes fully ionic compositional dependence observed in ionically treated waterfloods in both sandstones and carbonates.
Microchannel Remediation of a Cement Packer Unlocks Mature-Field Potential
Well RXY is located in Cairn’s Ravva offshore field in the Krishna-Godavari Basin in India. One goal for the field was significant crude production by means of a secondary reservoir section.
Best Practices for Waterflooding Optimization Improve Oil Recovery in Mature Fields
This paper presents technologies and best practices to improve oil recovery in mature fields through waterflooding optimization. These technologies have proved practical and cost-effective.
Model Simulates Gas Kicks in Nonaqueous Drilling Fluids
Nonaqueous drilling fluids, such as synthetic-based and oil-based mud (SBM and OBM, respectively), are used frequently to drill one or more sections of a well to reduce drilling problems such as shale sloughing, wellbore stability, and stuck pipe.
Managed-Pressure-Drilling Equipment Augments Deepwater Well Control
This paper describes how a technique known as applied-surface-backpressure managed-pressure drilling (ASBP-MPD) can alleviate the limitations of conventional deepwater well control.
As operators and asset owners worked continually to increase efficiency in oil production, they all realized that part of efficiency improvement is increasing recovery factors. Everybody now is extremely focused on recovering more from the reservoirs they have.
Mature Fields and Well Revitalization
Mature brownfields contribute significantly to global oil production. A study of the papers presented during the past year at various SPE conferences reveals continuation of the trend to put in massive effort to minimize decline from mature brownfields.
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