TOPICS OF INTEREST
ConocoPhillips Leaning on Conventionals Near-Term, Unconventionals Long-Term
Most of ConocoPhillips’ oil and gas production by the end of the next decade will come from its unconventional operations. But, for the near-term, the Houston independent will rely on conventional assets as it seeks to keep spending in check, decline rates low, and cash flow on the rise.
Alliances Drive Upstream Digital Deployment
Partnerships with big tech, tech startups, and innovative service companies—and the merging of their data, cloud, and software applications—are proving essential for operators in the scaling phase of digital deployment. Equinor, Microsoft, and Halliburton are among those joining forces.
In my view, we still do not possess a full understanding of oil production in unconventional fractured reservoirs. Our ability to forecast such assets remains elusive, even with copious amounts of analytics, mountains of data, and an arsenal of machine-learning tools.
Operator Executives Share Haynesville Development Strategies
Indigo Natural Resources, Aethon Energy, and Rockcliff Energy are among the most active operators in the revived Haynesville Shale of North Louisiana and East Texas. And most people outside of the region likely have never heard of them.
In-Situ Upgrading Process Offers Potential for Heavy-Oil Recovery
In this work, the authors developed a numerical model of in-situ upgrading (IU) on the basis of laboratory experiences and validated results, applying the model to an IU test published in the literature.
4D Seismic With Reservoir Simulation Improves Reservoir Forecasting
This paper outlines the value of 4D for reducing uncertainty in the range of history-matched models and improving the production forecast.
To Solve Frac Hits, Unconventional Engineering Must Revolve Around Them
The struggle to overcome the challenge of frac hits has led to a critical dialogue about which pathway the shale sector should take. One idea is to simply put the problem at the center of every major decision.
Fighting Water With Water: How Engineers Are Turning the Tides on Frac Hits
If the shale sector’s most complex problem can be solved, it will require companies to use their wells as a team. Newly detailed field work shows that a good defense is the key to success.
BP, Chevron Bring Two More Offshore Projects on Stream
Majors BP and Chevron have overcome development challenges and delays to launch their respective Clair Ridge and Big Foot projects.
Simulation Algorithm Benefits by Connecting Geostatistics With Unsupervised Learning
A new geostatistics modeling methodology that connects geostatistics and machine-learning methodologies, uses nonlinear topological mapping to reduce the original high-dimensional data space, and uses unsupervised-learning algorithms to bypass problems with supervised-learning algorithms.
Shell, Bluware Team up on Seismic With Video Game Tech
Video games have been seen as a big waste of time for years by parents around the globe. But now, the oil and gas industry sees the underlying technology as a big time saver.
New Modeling Code Sees Deep Inside Fractures, May Change Thinking on Well Spacing
Operators are working with a young startup company to overhaul how the unconventional sector has traditionally interpreted one the most common tests used to influence well completion designs.
Integrated Study Aids Characterization and Modeling of Natural-Fracture Networks
Natural fractures can have a significant effect on fluid flow by creating permeability anisotropy in hydrocarbon reservoirs.
A radical digital revolution is happening all around us (or so we are told). Applying this to reservoir simulation, we apparently need to understand better when and, more importantly, when not to use such technology—to appreciate its bounds, its limitations, its range of validity, and so on.
Reservoir-Modeling Work Flow Introduces Structural Features Without Regridding
This paper proposes a novel work flow for structural-features modeling that allows the introduction of faults and other structural and nonstructural features to any simulation grid without modification.
Saturation Modeling Under a Complex Fluid-Fill History: Drainage and Imbibition
This paper presents a saturation-modeling approach for fields and reservoirs with complex hydrocarbon-charging histories. The model resolves saturation-height functions for the primary-drainage, imbibition, and secondary-drainage equilibriums.
Rapid S-Curve Update Using Ensemble Variance Analysis With Model Validation
In the complete paper, the authors propose a novel method to rapidly update the prediction S-curves given early production data without performing additional simulations or model updates after the data come in.
Enhancing Model Consistency in Ensemble-Based History Matching
The aim of this work is to present the effectiveness of a fully integrated approach for ensemble-based history matching on a complex real-field application.
Ensemble-Based Assisted History Matching With 4D-Seismic Fluid-Front Parameterization
An ensemble-based 4D-seismic history-matching case is presented in the complete paper. Seismic data are reparameterized as distance to a 4D anomaly front and assimilated with production data.
A New Three-Phase Microemulsion Relative Permeability Model
The complete paper presents a new three-phase relative permeability model for use in chemical-flooding simulators.
3D Simulator Predicts Realistic Mud Displacement in Deviated and Horizontal Wells
The complete paper discusses the advancements in mud-displacement simulation that overcome the limitations of the previous-generation simulator and provide a more-realistic simulation in highly deviated and horizontal wells.
Researchers: Models Overstate Technology Impact, Understate Location Impact for Unconventional Wells
Two researchers at the MIT Energy Initiative have found that current modeling overestimates the impact of new technology on unconventional well productivity and underestimates that of increasingly targeting reservoir “sweet spots.”
Method Addresses Difficulty of Modeling Heterogeneous Carbonate Bimodal Rocks
Because of their heterogeneity, carbonate reservoirs are more difficult to model than clastic reservoirs. The main difficulty comes from the number of different pore types, compared with the typical interparticle pore type in clastics.
Numerical Modeling of Unstable Waterfloods and Tertiary Polymer Floods for Viscous Oils
This paper addresses the challenges in modeling highly unstable waterflooding, using both a conventional Darcy-type simulator and an adaptive dynamic prenetwork model, by comparing the simulated results with experimental data including saturation maps.
Transient Coupled Wellbore/Reservoir Model Using a Dynamic IPR Function
Conventional inflow-performance-relationship (IPR) models are used in coupled wellbore/reservoir transient simulations, even if bottomhole-pressure conditions are assumed to be constant on the derivation of such IPR models.
Reservoir Simulation: "Optimization Under Uncertainty"
Nearly a decade after an SPE meeting in Bruges set industry-inspiring benchmarks for reservoir modeling, the time has come to overcome a new set of challenges.
Integrated Software Tool Brings Speed, Reliability to Reservoir Modeling on Barents Sea Project
A fast, integrated reservoir modeling tool used by Eni at Norway’s Goliat field generated an ensemble of models that helped confirm the location of previously identified infill drilling targets and identify several new infill locations.
Proper Simulation of Chemical-EOR Pilots—A Real Case Study
A critical step in proper design and optimization of any chemical-enhanced-oil-recovery (CEOR) process is appropriate and precise numerical simulations.
Experimental and Numerical Studies of CO2 EOR in Unconventional Reservoirs
This study explores the mechanisms contributing to oil recovery with numerical modeling of experimental work and investigates the effects of various parameters on oil recovery.
New Technology in a Mature East Malaysian Field
This paper describes the first job in southeast Asia in developing horizontal-well placement in a turbidite environment.
Prescriptive-Analytics Modeling Technology Captures Reservoir Physics
Producers face a number of decision-making challenges. Specifically, they must optimize field development and operational decisions in light of the complex interplay of fiscal, market, and reservoir variables.
Pores to Production: The Nanoscale Search for More Oil
The story of unconventional oil and gas technology development has been focused on fractures. The formula has been more stages, more sand, and more water, targeting the most productive spots.
Production-Optimization Strategy Using a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
The optimization algorithm used in this work is a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which is the combination of GAs with artificial neural networks (ANNs) and evolution strategies (ESs).
Modeling of a Complex Reservoir Where the Normal Modeling Rules Do Not Apply
With the easy conventional oil in Argentina having been produced, one remaining way to find new oil in existing fields is to convert fields from primary or secondary production to secondary or tertiary production, respectively.
Use of Emulator Methodology for Uncertainty-Reduction Quantification
Because the uncertainty analysis is complex and time consuming, in this paper, a stochastic representation of the computer model, called an emulator, was constructed to quantify the reduction in the parameter input space.
Project Tests High-Performance Cloud Computing for Reservoir Simulations
In upstream oil and gas, cloud computing is very immature because the industry has always been challenged by storage and computational capability. However, high-performance cloud computing may create an opportunity for smaller companies lacking infrastructure for scientific applications.
Reservoir-simulation-model inputs are numerous, and uncertainty is pervasive—before, during, and after development. With the pressure to deliver results quickly, how do we find the right balance?
Simulation Analysis With Association-Rule Mining Plus High-Dimensional Visualization
Computational advances in reservoir simulation have made possible the simulation of thousands of reservoir cases in a practical time frame. This enables exhaustive exploration of subsurface uncertainty and development/depletion options.
A More-Rigorous Development Framework for Unconventional Reservoirs
This paper describes how seismic reservoir integration, advanced production analysis, and accurate nanoscale and 3D full-field simulations may address profitability issues and help oil companies to be more efficient in developing unconventional portfolios.
Young Technology Showcase—Top-Down Modeling: A Shift in Building Full-Field Models for Mature Fields
Data-driven, or top-down, modeling uses machine learning and data mining to develop reservoir models based on measurements, rather than solutions of governing equations.
Mature Flood Surveillance Using Streamlines
With the recent drop in oil prices, operators are shifting to optimization of existing assets with minimal costs. For mature floods (water, chemical, and CO2), one low-cost optimization strategy is the intelligent adjustment of well-rate targets.
Machine Learning Applied to Multiwell-Test Analysis and Flow-Rate Reconstruction
Permanent downhole gauges (PDGs) can provide a continuous record of flow rate and pressure, which provides extensive information about the reservoir. In this work, a machine-learning framework based on PDG data was extended to two applications: multiwell testing and flow-rate reconstruction.
A Data-Driven Model for History Matching and Prediction
In this paper, the authors derive and implement an interwell numerical simulation model (INSIM) that can be used as a calculation tool to approximate the performance of a reservoir under waterflooding.
Bayesian-Style History Matching: Another Way To Underestimate Forecast Uncertainty?
This paper critically investigates the impact of using realistic, inaccurate simulation models. In particular, it demonstrates the risk of underestimating uncertainty when conditioning real-life models to large numbers of field data.
Streamline-Based History Matching for Multicomponent Compositional Systems
In this paper, the authors introduce a novel semianalytic approach to compute the sensitivity of the bottomhole pressure (BHP) data with respect to gridblock properties.
History Matching and Forecasting
History matching is only one part of something more comprehensive—reservoir modeling.
A Nonisothermal Wellbore Model and Its Application in Well Testing
Although the wellbore is in a nonisothermal environment, heat transfer between the fluid in the wellbore and the formation is often ignored and temperature is usually assumed constant in data interpretation, which will lead to misunderstanding of the pressure profile.
Downturn Represents Stress Test for Unconventional Hydraulic Fracture Modeling
Developers of the latest generation of unconventional hydraulic fracturing models are hoping that current weak oil and gas prices will generate newfound interest in their software technology.
Simulation of Residual Oil Saturation Through Tuning of Equilibrium Constants
Conventional miscible- or near-miscible-gasflood simulation often overestimates oil recovery, mostly because it does not capture a series of physical effects tending to limit interphase compositional exchanges.
An Integrated Methodology To Locate Oil Opportunities in Mature Reservoirs
A matured field is currently producing with greater than 85% water cut (WC) and has significant levels of uncertainty with respect to oil/water contact (OWC), flank structure, depth of spill points, production allocation, and residual oil saturation.
Guest Editorial: Engineering Design in the “Lower for Longer” Environment
For engineering design teams, the market downturn is an opportunity to review practices and learn from others who have used hard times to reshape processes through simulation while cutting development time and costs.
Understanding Waterflood Response in Tight Oil Formations: A Saskatchewan Case Study
An 18-well numerical-simulation model was built to represent an operator’s Lower Shaunavon waterflood-pilot area. Numerical simulation was used, and a history match on the pilot area was performed.
Field-Development-Plan Optimization of a Giant Field for Recovery Improvement
To optimize the development plan of a giant carbonate reservoir offshore Abu Dhabi to extend the production plateau and improve recovery, detailed sector models were used to facilitate the large number of required simulation runs.
Drilling Modeling and Simulation: Current State and Future Goals
The process of drilling a borehole is very complex, involving surface and downhole drilling systems that interact with the drilling fluid and the surrounding rocks.
Model-Based Evaluation of Surveillance-Program Effectiveness With Proxies
This paper proposes a framework based on proxies and rejection sampling (filtering) to perform multiple history-matching runs with a manageable number of reservoir simulations.
The Gravity of Oil and Gas Exploration
A Cold War technology invented to stealthily guide the United States Navy’s nuclear submarine fleet is now serving a much more peaceful purpose: aiding in the search for oil and gas deposits.
Factors Critical to Multiwell Reservoir Simulation of Liquids-Rich Shale Plays
Multiwell modeling of shale plays is not performed frequently. In projects in which a main objective is well spacing or completion optimization, a comprehensive multiwell reservoir-simulation study is required.
Technique Uses Multilateral, Multisegment Wells To Represent Hydraulic Fractures
This paper describes a modeling technique by which hydraulic fractures are represented as part of the well model rather than as any form of refinement in the simulation grid.
A Critical View of the Current State of Reservoir Modeling of Shale Assets
This article reviews methods used to understand the complexities associated with production from shale.
As the development of shale oil and gas becomes increasingly significant, so does the need for modeling tools for their accurate and timely forecasting.
Molecular Simulation Helps Determine Key Shale-Gas Parameters
Shale gas is fast becoming a source of energy of paramount significance for the coming years. Although commercial production has been achieved in numerous plays throughout the world, the actual physics involved is poorly understood.
Massively Parallel Simulation of Oceanic-Gas-Hydrate Production
Large volumes of gas can be produced at high rates with conventional horizontal- or vertical-well configurations for long periods of time from some methane-hydrate accumulations by means of depressurization-induced dissociation.
Quality-Assured Initialization Optimizes the Value of Reservoir Simulation
Initializing a reservoir simulator requires populating a 3D dynamic-grid-cell model with subsurface data and fit-for-purpose interrelational algorithms. In practice, these prerequisites rarely are satisfied fully.
Looking back through previous editions of this article, I note that, in 2011, I wrote, “there’s a growing tendency in some quarters to use very simple models.” That may be true, but there is also a growing tendency among vendors to offer models with more and more features.
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27 March 2020