Cooldown of Subsea Deadleg With a Cold Spot: Experimental and Numerical Heat-Transfer Analysis
Experimental and numerical heat-transfer analysis was conducted on a T-shaped acrylic-glass pipe, representing a production header in a subsea production system with a vertical deadleg. The header was insulated, while the deadleg was not insulated and carried a cold spot on the top. The experimental conditions were set to mimic those of steady-state production, followed by a 3-hr shutdown (cooldown). The internal fluid temperature and the wall temperature were measured by use of resistance temperature detectors and thermocouples, respectively, while particle image velocimetry was used to measure the velocities in the deadleg. It was shown that the mean velocity field during both steady state and cooldown was periodic, with a clockwise and counterclockwise rotation along the deadleg wall. By use of a k–ω shear-stress transport Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model in ANSYS CFX, the thermal field was correctly predicted for 3 hr of cooldown by modeling the cold spot as an isothermal wall. The RANS model was unable to recreate the periodic velocity field observed in the experiment.
A New Offshore Investment Cycle Is in the Making
The amount of oil and gas resources approved for development last year surpassed 20 billion BOE, the highest level seen since 2011. Telltale signs have emerged that we are entering a new offshore investment cycle.
Equinor Plans Extension of Statfjord Field
The plan will extend production of the largest field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf to 2040, while also deferring plans to decommission the Statfjord A platform. Statfjord A was originally scheduled to be decommissioned in 2022.
Senegal Approves Woodside’s Sangomar Project
The approval clears the way for final investment decision on the offshore project, which includes a standalone FPSO expected to have a production capacity of 100,000 B/D. First oil is targeted for 2023.
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