Experimental Study on Wax-Deposition Characteristics of a Waxy Crude Oil Under Single-Phase Turbulent-Flow Conditions
Crude oil, having a paraffin nature, has been studied extensively in the small-scale flow loop at Tulsa University Paraffin Deposition Projects (TUPDP). The effects of turbulence/shear and thermal driving force on wax-deposition characteristics were experimentally studied using a waxy crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico. The test matrix consisted of a total of 15 experiments, which included 12 short-term tests and three long-term tests. The tests were conducted under different operating conditions with a wide range of Reynolds numbers from 3,700 to 20,500. The shear stress ranged from 5.4 to 53.9 Pa.
It was observed that paraffin deposition is highly dependent on the thermal effective driving force, which is the temperature difference between oil bulk and initial inner pipe wall, and also on turbulence effects. The deposit thickness obtained using both the pressure-drop method and a direct measurement was found to decrease with increasing shear stress and decreasing thermal driving force. The wax content showed a gradual increase with an increase in flow rate. For the short-term tests, the deposit mass with no entrained oil seemed to increase and then decrease with an increase in initial shear stress and decrease in effective thermal driving force, whereas the total deposit mass was found to decrease with an increase in initial shear stress or decrease in effective thermal driving force.
New Innovations Enable Autonomous Pipeline Inspections
As companies look to reduce the time it takes to inspect a subsea pipeline, as well as the costs involved in the operation, autonomous systems have become a more desirable option. How close are they to becoming the norm?
SPE Launches Flow Measurement Technical Section
Approved in October, the Flow Measurement Technical Section will help engage the greater SPE technical community in flow-measurement-related issues and technologies. It will cover the full spectrum of flow measurement, including single-phase and multiphase flow.
SwRI Develops Superhydrophobic Coating for Offshore Drilling Pipes
A newly developed superhydrophobic coating keeps offshore drilling pipes from being clogged by various substances. R&D Magazine recently recognized the coating and the unique process to apply it to pipes as one of the 100 most significant innovations of 2019.
Don't miss out on the latest technology delivered to your email every two weeks. Sign up for the OGF newsletter. If you are not logged in, you will receive a confirmation email that you will need to click on to confirm you want to receive the newsletter.
15 January 2020
14 January 2020