Corrosion Will Occur, Whether You Like It or Not
Just like Houston’s summer heat, corrosion of metal surfaces will occur—whether you like it or not. To help you better understand corrosion, these papers describe using water surveys in a production/injection plant, testing the effectiveness of mitigation, and data evaluation using machine learning.
HDPE Liner in Carbon Steel Pipe Manages Flowline Corrosion in Giant Onshore Field
Internal corrosion has caused ADNOC to suffer loss of containment in oil flowlines in a giant onshore field. This paper describes the successful 5-year field trial program and confirmation that HDPE liner application in carbon steel pipe can be a cost-efficient way to mitigate internal corrosion.
Machine Learning Enhances Evaluation of Oil and Gas Assets
Using machine learning (ML), image recognition, and object detection, the use of ML on algorithms to recognize objects and describe their condition were investigated—offering new possibilities for performing inspection and data gathering to evaluate the technical condition of oil and gas assets.
Water Survey Assesses Souring and Corrosion at Production/Injection Plant
At a water treatment plant for an onshore oil field in northern Germany, formaldehyde injection was started in 2015 as a biocide. The goal of this study was to understand the chemical parameters and microbial distribution in the water system and whether formaldehyde injection was effective.
Artificial Pipeline Model Enables Comparison of Biocides in a Dynamic System
To facilitate testing and comparison of products that attenuate microbially influenced corrosion under field conditions, a method using microorganisms from a low-tide, anoxic North Sea sample was developed that allows corrosion measurements to be made for corroding biofilms grown on steel surfaces.
Stopping the Blame Game in Safety Incidents
For employees to report on safety incidents, there must be a ‘just culture,’ where issues can be discussed freely and underlying causes investigated and corrected without fear of punitive actions.
Managing Fatigue To Reduce Risk and Improve Work Culture
Companies in the petroleum industry, from exploration and production, to transportation, refining, and distribution, operate around the clock. This paper intends to raise awareness on the impact of fatigue in the petroleum industry and recommend a framework for fatigue risk management.
Safety Campaign Reduces Dropped-Object Incidents
The emotional involvement of participants during the initial phase of a safety campaign increases implementation effectiveness significantly. In this case, a film guides the audience to make positive, personal choices whenever planning and operating a work at height.
Integrating Human Factor Engineering in Construction and Fabrication
This paper describes an operator’s experience with HFE during the construction and fabrication/installation phase of projects, including welding during the fabrication of buoyancy tanks, emergency preparedness, and the use of 3D model walk-throughs.
My Picks for Read and Learn: The Role of Culture, Choices, Human Factors, and Fatigue in Safety
Safety depends on developing a dedicated culture mind-set and mitigation of risks, from the planning and engineering phases to the work site. These papers selected by OGF technical paper editor Gerald Verbeek present various practices for reducing and eliminating the number of incidents.
Case Studies in Produced Water Treatment
Three papers selected from 2018 SPE ATCE look at the challenges and approaches to the treatment of increasing volumes of produced water.
Smart-Fluid-Processing System Reduces Footprint, Improves Separation Efficiency
Reducing a separation system’s footprint while increasing separation efficiency is demonstrated in an Oklahoma field trial.
Testing of Two-Stage Biofiltration Unit for Mitigation of VOC Emissions
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in crude oil can be released to the atmosphere from storage tanks, waste waters, and equipment leaks. A pilot-scale sequential biotrickling/biofiltration unit was designed and tested for removal of VOCs from a wastewater sump.
Fit-for-Purpose Water Treatment in Permian Shale
Sourcing water for hydraulic fracturing, and disposing of produced water, are constraints and significant cost items in the Permian Basin. Some of the produced water can be treated and reused by using a water life cycle approach..
Big Data, Big Decisions: Capturing the Power of Data in Operations and Business
Discussions of big data and its management are increasing across our industry and disciplines. This selection of technical papers takes a look at data mining, the ethical issues associated with it, and the status of data-driven methods.
Condition-Based Maintenance Helps Develop a North Sea Low-Manned Platform
Remote condition monitoring of offshore platform equipment tracks performance data, watching for deviations from baseline benchmarks. Unexpected variances can be investigated and serviced by technicians dispatched to target the root causes—an approach called condition-based maintenance.
Harnessing Data To Overcome the Barriers of Digital Adoption
Digitalization in the oil and gas industry has been the focus of much discussion, but little has been written on the slow rate of adoption. This paper outlines some of the barriers the industry faces as it assimilates into Industry 4.0—automation and data integration in manufacturing.
Establishing Data Ethics in Oil and Gas Operations
The use of data-intensive decision making and smart risk-management solutions has resulted in the improvement of the ethical foundations underlying the industry. These digital tools and machine-based cognitive processes for risk-avoidance have also helped restore the public’s trust in the industry.
Data-Driven Methods Present Potential for Success
Data-driven methods offer significant advantages in the industry, under certain conditions, over conventional methods. But reservations still exist about their use. The paper serves to bridge the gap between unclear understanding of these methods and their successful acceptance and implementation.
Data-Management Methods Connect Subsea Assets
Digitalization in operating, maintaining, and upgrading subsea plants to reduce cost includes making information available to the control-room operator, reducing alarms, tuning the control system for optimal performance, condition monitoring, and condition-based maintenance.
The Grand Challenge of Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Even with the wealth of experience already in place within the oil and gas industry, the obstacles to advancing CCS to the forefront of greenhouse gas mitigation technologies remain significant.
Case Study: Design of Injection Facilities for CO2 Recovery
A pilot project demonstrates that facilities design plays an important role in providing sources of CO2 for the gas-handling process for injection into a carbonate formation as a tertiary recovery mechanism.
The Effect of CO2 Injection on Corrosion and Integrity of Facilities
The paper discusses the main factors affecting CO2 corrosion, provides an assessment of what to look for in major equipment, and details recommended material of construction and corrosion mitigation/control methods.
Galvanizing Stakeholder Support for Carbon Capture and Storage
Collaboration is critical to achieving recognition of the scope and value of carbon capture and storage and achieving acceptance for specific projects.
Combining Gas-to-Wire Technology With Carbon Capture and Storage
Natural gas, coupled with carbon capture and storage (CCS), could provide cheap and reliable energy in the long term and mitigate climate change. Gas-to-wire (GTW) generates electricity from natural gas at or near the field. This study applies an integrated GTW/CCS scheme to a gas-production field.
Surface-Facilities Design for First CO2 EOR Project in Saudi Arabia
A demonstration project of carbon capture, utilization, and storage through enhanced oil recovery was conducted in Saudi Arabia. Surface facilities for such projects are expensive to build and involve tradeoffs in options based on economics for a given set of conditions.
Moving Away From Our “Eiffel Tower” Approach to Offshore Processing Equipment
We don’t include a structure like the Eiffel Tower with separators, pumps, and compressors on the top observation platform in an onshore development plan. And yet, how many jacket platforms are there around the world?
High-Voltage Subsea Pump Enables Low-Cost Boosting
Subsea pumps are used for gas/liquid separation, subsea compression, and subsea boosting. Solutions aiming at cost reductions are crucial to make subsea processing projects feasible. A cost- and complexity-reduction solution for the subsea electrical power supply is a critical consideration.
Selecting the Right Subsea Pump for Your Application
Operator or manufacturer’s reports and published papers are reviewed and a criterion is developed for subsea pump selection.
Subsea High-Boosting Multiphase Pumps Increase Oil Recovery in Aging Field (Includes presentation slides)
Production from an offshore Angola field has been decreasing because of subsea pressure declines amid water-cut increases and limited gas compressor capacity. The development process leading to the selection of high-boosting multiphase pumps is described.
Executing Offshore Projects More Efficiently
Offshore project execution enhancement ideas are highlighted for debottlenecking, gas-hydrate-induced pipeline vibration, and the design of subsea systems for efficient startup.
Hydrate-Induced Vibration in an Offshore Pipeline
A computational fluid dynamics model is proposed to analyze the effect of hydrate flow in pipelines using multiphase-flow-modeling techniques. The results will identify the cause of pipeline failure, regions of maximum stress in the pipeline, and plastic deformation of the pipeline.
Produced-Water Debottlenecking Improves Offshore Production
An operator in the western Gulf of Thailand retrofit two partial-processing water-management systems on mobile-offshore-production-unit platforms for bulk removal and treatment of produced water. Water debottlenecking increased oil production by 80% and reduced the infield transfer volume by 62%. Th
Designing Subsea Systems for Efficient Startup To Mitigate Topside Downtime
The workflow aims to reduce the startup time of a subsea production system (SPS). A dynamic integrated model is used to adjust the scheduled SPS startup time. The model evaluates the dynamic simulation response of a large field startup by integrating a reservoir- and gathering-network model.
Improving Gas Dehydration With Preinhibited Glycol
The paper discusses dehydration performance of two units in two plants—with preinhibited glycol/antifoam/pH adjuster blend vs. neat glycol with periodic injection of antifoam and pH-adjuster inhibitors. The insights present an opportunity for significant operating and capital costs reduction.
Social Performance Indicators Evolve in Update to Sustainability Reporting Guide
The Oil & Gas Industry Guidance on Voluntary Sustainability Reporting acts as a framework for improving the quality and consistency of voluntary sustainability reporting. This paper discusses the most recent update to the guide, and offers an overview of the discussed social performance indicators.
Localized Pitting Corrosion of Superduplex Stainless Steel in a Seawater Application
During the dismantling and removal of fire-water-pump columns of superduplex stainless steel barely 1 year after plant startup in a redeveloped brownfield offshore Nigeria severe localized pitting corrosion was observed in the columns. This paper explores the findings and identifies the reasons.
Getting Ahead of the Curve—Front-End Loading HSE in Major Projects
A proactive approach with EPC contract bidders to front-end load HSE strategies will pay dividends. This paper discusses the HSE management strategy for the Lake Charles Liquefied Natural Gas project.
Selected Papers From OnePetro: Your Source for E&P Technical Knowledge
With these synopses of technical papers from OnePetro you can join the author for conferences in Kuala Lumpur, New Orleans, and Lagos, all while sitting in your chairs and without any travel expenses.
Collaborative Tool Helps Companies Plan Decommissioning, Share Lessons Learned
Decom North Sea has developed the Late Life Planning Portal system, a web-based information portal, to capture tools that add value as well as good practices and lessons learned from the execution of decommissioning projects.
Integrating Decision Support Models With Value Attributes for Platform Decommissioning
Using decision analysis as a software tool helps to clarify and evaluate decommissioning alternatives against a comprehensive set of objectives, including both market and nonmarket values.
Planning and Estimating Costs for Field Decommissioning in Brazil
This paper aims to develop a Brazilian baseline for front-end planning and cost estimation of the decommissioning, removal, and disposal options.
Decommissioning To Become Big Business
Whether you are involved in the design and construction of new facilities or the decommissioning of existing facilities, having a solid understanding of decom makes a lot of sense. Are you ready as all around the world offshore facilities have reached, or are reaching, the end of their design life?
Arctic Pipeline Route Selection
To reduce the risks to arctic pipelines from natural or geologic hazards, a more sophisticated approach to routing compared to traditional methods based on only the shortest length of pipe or connectivity to existing infrastructure is needed.
Concept for Ice-Resistant Offshore Terminal for Arctic LNG Export
Cost and delivery of long-distance natural gas pipelines to a distant liquefaction facility at a warm-water port has become excessive, and environmental restraints have been increasing. An alternative is an offshore ice-resistant LNG port accommodating a new class of LNG transport vessels.
Design Tools for Arctic Subsea Pipelines
As the design methodologies evolve for arctic pipelines, strudel scour, permafrost thaw settlement, and ice gouging need to be factored in with environmental and geotechnical data, limit states, and trenching and backfilling activities.
Taking on the Arctic With New Concepts
New approaches to arctic activities include a concept for an offshore ice-resistant LNG export terminal, the design of subsea pipelines, and the optimal routing for the pipelines to mitigate the unique risks in arctic regions such as ice-gouging and permafrost thaw.
Compact, Efficient Heat Exchanger Based on Packed Beds of Nanoparticle-Doped Spheres
In this work, the authors demonstrate at a laboratory scale the possibility of using a radio-frequency heating system as a heat exchanger.
Nanotechnology Advances in the Oil Field
As practitioners we don’t always convey that the oil and gas industry is at the forefront of many different technologies, but we should, if only because it can be a real selling point to attract young people to our industry. In that spirit, I selected three papers that deal with nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology for Oilfield Applications: Challenges and Effects
This paper presents a critical review of the recent literature to determine the status of research and development and field application of nanotechnology in the oil field.
Oil-Droplet Removal From Produced Water by Use of Nanoparticles
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is a promising way to remove dispersed oil from produced water. In this study, the authors investigated the optimal operating conditions for MNPs and the mechanisms of MNP/oil attachments and magnetic separation.
Four Generations of Fire- and Blast-Resistant Walls on Offshore Installations
Four types of fire- and blast-resistant walls for offshore installations are assessed, including internal vs. external fire and blast walls.
Fire Protection on Offshore Platforms
Whenever we design an oil and gas facility, the safety of the operating staff is of paramount importance. At last year’s Offshore Technology Conference, three papers presented information on a critical safety feature: fire protection on offshore installations.
Passive-Fire-Protection Optimization in Offshore Topside Structures
Applying sufficient passive fire protection (PFP) on topside structural-steel members is critical. Simplified and conservative approaches are available to estimate the extent and amount of PFP necessary.
Three-Sided Passive Fire Protection on Steel-Beam Decks for Offshore Installations
This study presents an overview of the structural response and failure mechanism of three-sided protected beams and proposes design solutions.
Corrosion and Scaling
In this first selection are papers dealing with scaling and corrosion, topics that affect all of us involved with oil and gas facilities. Early in my career I worked in corrosion, only to discover that without keeping scaling and corrosion in mind, it is impossible to be a good facilities engineer.
The Importance of Inhibitor Analysis in Scale Management—An Overview
The accurate and precise analysis of scale inhibitors—in conjunction with other field data such as ion analysis, total suspended solids, and productivity index—plays an important role in making decisions about the efficiency of scale squeeze and continuous chemical injection treatments.
Use of Preservation Chemicals Following Hydrostatic Testing of Pipelines
This paper considers some of the challenges and learnings associated with the application of chemicals for preservation of coated pipe/flowline for a major liquefied-natural-gas (LNG) project in Australia.
Oilfield-Corrosion-Failure Analysis: Lessons Learned From Pitting Morphologies
Identifying the type of corrosion is the first step in the analysis and prevention of corrosion-related failures. Visual inspection of the pit morphology can provide insights into the type of corrosion that is occurring.
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